Introduction: Diabetes is the most common of the endocrine disorders and poses a serious challenge to health care globally. Objective of the study: To evaluate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic potentials of processed and non-processed bitter yam and acha flour blends on diabetic rats. Methodology: Bitter yam (Dioscorea dumentorum) was blanched in hot water at 80ºC for 5 mins, dried at 50ºC and milled into flour. Un-blanched bitter yam flour served as control. Bitter yam blanched at 80ºC for 5 min and the unbalanced was blended with varying levels of acha (Digitaria exilis) flour. The hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic potentials of the flour blends were also evaluated using rat bioassay. Data was analyzed using ANOVA and Duncan Multiple Range Test and p < 0.05 is significant. Results: Diets formulated with un-blanched bitter yam/acha and blanched bitter yam/acha blends significantly (p < 0.05) reduced fasting blood glucose (FBG) of diabetic rats. Diabetic rats fed diet containing 50:50 blanched bitter yam/acha blends reduced FBG by 71.44% while diet containing 50:50 unbalanced bitter yam/acha blends reduced FBG by 72.65%. Diabetic rats fed normal rat chow reduced FBG by 11.22%. Rats fed 100% blanched bitter yam diet and 100% unbalanced bitter yam diet also reduced FBG by 30.39% and 18.40% respectively. The FBG of rats fed blanched bitter yam diet and unbalanced bitter yam diet differed significantly from that of rats fed normal rats chow. The lipid profile of rats fed bitter yam/acha flour blends showed that serum total cholesterol increased from 74.50 to 183.75 mg/dL, triglyceride from 21.50 to 94.00 mg/dL, high density lipoprotein from 44.25 to 56.75 mg/dL, and low density lipoprotein from 60.25 to 149.00 mg/dL. Conclusion: The blends of bitter yam/acha showed anti diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemia activity in diabetic rats.
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