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Quality assessments of yoghurts produced from local plant ra | 96050
International Research Journals
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Quality assessments of yoghurts produced from local plant raw materials {Cajanus cajan (fiofio), Vignia ungiculata (akidi oji) and Vignia subterranean(okpa)}

Abstract

Eberechukwu Akalihu Udensi, Sunday Onyekwere Eze, Ahamefula Anslem Ahuchaogu and Chioma Ernest Ubiji*

Challenges of food security in developing countries has in recent years made researches to be directed towards the development of foods with improved protein quality by the use of blends of legumes and cereals which are considered to be nutritionally balanced. In this wise, yoghurts were produced from local plant raw materials and their blends including Cajanus cajan (Fiofio), Vignia ungiculata (Akidi oji) and Vignia subterranea (Okpa) which are underutilized local foods. Commercial Cowbell milk was also used for the yoghurt production as control. The work also assessed the effect of using sorghum and millet steep waters as starter cultures as a possible replacement for the commercial starter cultures which encompasses lactic acid producing bacteria (Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus). 22 yoghurt samples were prepared (A1234, B1234, C1234, D, E123, F1234 and G123. they were subjected to proximate, phytochemicals, minerals, vitamins, chemicals, microbial analysis as well as sensory evaluation with a view of understanding the consumer acceptability of the products. Commercially acceptable yoghurt brand- Hollandia yoghurt was also analyzed and used as overall control (sample D). The data generated were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post hoc test and significant difference set at (p<0.05). The result indicated the presence of alkaloids (0.3 - 1.2mg), flavonoids (0.7 - 2.6mg), saponin (0.1 - 0.8mg), tannins (0.2 - 1.2mg) and oxalate (0.1 - 0.5mg). Vitamins, calcium (6.0 - 19.33mg), potassium (1.2 -24.59mg), magnesium (0.70 - 6.65mg), sulphur (0.0 - 0.1mg) and phosphorus (78 - 166mg) were at acceptable levels. These and other parameters studied varied significantly (p<0.05) for samples fermented with commercial starter culture, sorghum and millet steep water. The microbial result revealed that total viable count (TVC) ranged from 1.0 x 105 minimum to 7.2 x 105 maximum, pathogenic bacteria was not seen (nil). Both total viable count (TVC) and pathogenic bacteria were in a tolerable level for the three cultures. The result showed significant differences (p<0.05) in aroma, appearance, taste, texture and overall acceptance among the different yoghurt samples and fermented cultures. Consequently, yoghurt was successfully produced from local plant raw materials and there is possibility of using sorghum and millet steep water as a substitute for commercial starter culture.

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