Because of the broad sustainability and applicability, toxic metal cleanup technologies are highlighted in this review. Hazardous and invisible heavy metals can be incorporated into all segments of the environment, including soil, water, air, and plants, as a result of rapid developmental processes. The discharged hazardous heavy metals (HHMs) entered the food chain and were biomagnified into living beings through the ingestion of food and vegetables, posing a health risk. Physical and chemical rehabilitation methods are limited and localised, and they are mostly used on wastewater and soils rather than plants. More rectification and sustainability are required through nanotechnological, biotechnological, and genetical procedures. Understanding the routes and interactions that lead to the buildup of potentially toxic metals (TMs) at the cellular, molecular, and nanoscale. These methods could lead to the production of crop varieties with significantly lower TM concentrations in their edible fruits and vegetables. Authors found that nanoparticles have a high adaptability for both in-situ and ex-situ cleanup of hazardous heavy metals (HHMs) in the environment in a critical analysis.
Share this article