Bibiana Dooshima Igbabul, Onoja Eshi Christy, Moses Terkula Ukeyima
Bread was produced from wheat, water yam and brown hamburger bean. Five samples (A-E) were produced in the following ratios A=(100:0:0), B=(70:20:10), C=(65:20:15), D=(60:20:20), E=(55:20:25). Wheat flour (100%) served as the control. Proximate composition, physical properties, vitamin composition, mineral composition and sensory attributes of the bread were evaluated. The proximate composition of the bread showed significant increase at (P<0.05) in protein, crude fibre, fat, ash, and caloric value which ranged between 8.93-14.47%, 1.88-3.66%, 2.37-3.24%, 1.09-1.99%, and 286.39-305.16% and a significant decrease (P<0.05) in moisture content (22.11-28.44%) and carbohydrate (54.53-57.29%) respectively. The result of the physical properties showed that the constant amount of 20% water yam flour and incremental addition of brown hamburger bean flour led to increase in the loaf weight, decrease in loaf volume, specific volume and loaf height which ranged from 213.80-232.60 g, 555.00-605.00 cm3, 2.38-2.83 cm3/g and 3.65-7.45 cm, respectively. The vitamin and mineral contents showed increase in vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus which ranged from 1.75-1.97 mg/100 g, 0.09-0.23 mg/100 g, 1.76-4.01 mg/100 g, 62.46-65.28 mg/100 g, 16.34-21.02 mg/100 g, 83.35-95.98 mg/100 g, respectively. The sensory attributes of the bread showed significant differences in aroma, taste, crust appearance, crumb texture, crumb colour and general acceptability. All the samples (A-E) were generally accepted according on the 9 point hedonic scale except sample E (55% wheat, 20% water yam, 25% brown hamburger bean) which scored below 5point the minimum acceptable value on the scale. Therefore sample A, B, C and D can be used in the production of bread depending on nutritional needs.
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