Received: 05-May-2022, Manuscript No. ER-23-65039; Editor assigned: 09-May-2022, Pre QC No. ER-23-65039(PQ); Reviewed: 23-May-2022, QC No. ER-23-65039; Revised: 30-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. ER-23-65039(R); Published: 28-Feb-2023, DOI: 10.14303/2141-5161.2023.253
Life skills are necessary to empower learners to cope with their life successfully and its challenges and prepare them to understand and respond appropriately to daily events. Therefore, thoughtful integration of life skills topics into the curricula can sensitize learners to future actualities and improve values and skills needed for cooperation with others.
This descriptive-analytic study aimed at identifying the included life skills in the secondary stage English language textbooks. The researchers modified a model for classifying life skills that suit Jordanian learners and match international models. They came out with nine domains. The researchers designed the content analysis card sought to collect data relevant to the study. The findings of the study showed that there is variance in presenting the nine main domains in the English language textbooks for the secondary stage. Even in the one domain, there is a variance in presenting the items.
The nine main domains got the following results: effective communicative gets 30.11%, the interpersonal relationship gets 12.27%, problem solving gets 11.28%, self-awareness building gets 10.67%, decision making gets 10.32%, coping with stress and emotions l get 6.97%, creative thinking get 6.82%, get 6.67%, critical thinking with only 4.89%. It was clear that the secondary stage English language textbooks in Jordan focus was on communication. Life skills distribution indicates the lack of a good strategy in the distribution of life skills in this stage's textbooks.
Life skill, Secondary stage, Jordan, Textbooks
The effectiveness of English language instruction is measured by the learners' ability to internalize and use English language in natural life situations and the abilities for adaptive behavior that enables them to deal effectively with life demands and its challenges. The Ministry of Education is responsible for integrating English language in the students' daily life through stepping from the pre-school stage to the Secondary stage in an organized and systematic process. This can be succeeded if there is a well-designed curriculum that corresponds to the needs, thoughts and beliefs of a specific society. English language designers should include textbooks with a variety of life skills to engage students into society and make them active members in the real life situations.
One of the most important roles in learners' future is education which has the vital mean to transform the world. The education has importance of preparing the learners by having the life skills that enable, equip and empower them with necessary behavior. Life skills are the power for positive behavior that enables learners to deal successfully with everyday life defiance and enable learners to handle real life demands efficiently.
The Secondary stage being the most important phases of personality development needs to be guided very carefully so that we can build a very strong community on which the nation can depend on. The Secondary stage curriculum should include strategies that demand higher-level thinking skills such as problem solving, prediction, creative and critical thinking. This stage is a time when learners commence to develop their self-concepts and their feelings of dependability as learners; these years serve as the foundation for future success in their daily life, school and society and prepare them to be effective citizens (Abu Saiba M et al., 2018).
Life skills include the abilities of learners to apply their cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills for establishing a successful life for them and others. Multiple intelligence is the product of life skills. It represents the psychosocial skills that determine complete behavior of an individual through various skills. Secondary stage is the most important link between basic and higher education. The learners of secondary stage require to be directed properly by teachers and parents. The teaching-learning process for this stage should be focused on the chances for evolving their readiness, curiosity and attitude. The textbooks of secondary stage should well integrate with life skills (Al- Deiri Z et al., 2019).
Life skills grant the learners self-esteem and confidence by the implementation of life skills. This implementation is allowed learners to be more competitive in a positive sense. Life skills encourage a healthy behavior, maintain mental wellbeing and prevent behavioral and health problems (UNICEF, 2012). Therefore, life skills have implemented in education setting and integrated them in the curriculum of many countries. Life skills are basic learning need for the secondary stage learners such as communication, intellectual capacity, interpersonal skill, self-esteem, leadership and responsibility. Life skills enable learners to translate knowledge, attitudes and values into actual abilities and enable learners to behave in correct ways; life skills improve the academic performance of learners. These are skills that motivate even more learners to behave in a healthy way if they wish to do so and have the scope or opportunity to do so. It forms a link between selfhelp and self-discipline. These skills also help to improve interpersonal relationships with a sense of physical and mental well-being. It prevents mental disorders and behavior problems, as well as avoids health problems. There is no doubt to believe that the textbooks are considered as a good place to introduce life skills , as the school years, during which learners acquire a major part of their education, are important developmental years in an learners' life. Life skills will help learners to overcome obstacles in life. Life skills can serve as a remedy for the difficulties as they assist them to lead a better life (Al-Faraji M et al., 2017).
Ministry of Education in Jordan tries to provide learners with life skills to create individuals who have the ability to deal with daily situations and interact with others, it tries to adjust the curriculum in general and English language curriculum in specific and includes its textbooks the correct life skills in order to assist the Jordanian learners to comprehend life skills in order to enhance their daily life. The Educational Development Conference 2015, The Educational Conference (Assessment for Quality Education) 2018, and the Educational Conference (Distance Education and its applications in light of the Corona pandemic) 2021 emphasized the development of education and upgrading of curricula and study plans.
As well as the conferences have recommended all Scientific competencies to provide the Ministry of Education with the ideas and creativeness that contribute to enhancing its duties and responsibilities and reconsider the educational curriculum and school textbooks. Thus, the necessity of subjecting English language textbooks to continuous analysis and evaluation to be able to face the developments and changes imposed by times and to reconsider the English language curricula. Through the researchers' knowledge of the academic content of English language textbooks for the Secondary stage, they found deficiencies surrounding these textbooks in terms of their inclusion of life skills. And in order to be sure, the researchers have done several interviews and discussions with EFL teachers as well as EFL supervisors their responses came to assure that there are contrast and deficiencies in inclusion life skills in the English language curriculum for the secondary stage. In light of the importance of life skills, the researchers think that it is crucial to analyze and identify the life skills included in the content of the English language textbooks. The researchers intend to analyze these textbooks, measure the distribution of these skills in English language textbooks for the Secondary stage in Jordan (Al Jurani M et al., 2018).
The researchers believe that life skills are a series of experiences that provides people with needed skills that develop their characters to be good members of their societies. There is a serious need to provide Jordanian students with a list of life skills to cope with the progress of the world. In the current study, the researchers intend to identify the life skills implied in the content of the secondary stage English language textbooks. The researchers also intend to investigate the extent of the existence of these life skills in the content of the textbooks through a model for classifying life skills. This study focuses on analyzing the secondary stage English language textbooks based on the availability of life skills to determine the frequencies and percentages of the life skills present in these textbooks (Al-Khlan T et al., 2021).
Life skills can be mostly defined as abilities that enable individuals to deal dynamically with life's demands, problems, and challenges. They may also be defined as psychosocial skills, as they are psychological in nature and cover thinking and behavioral processes. Life skills have been defined in various ways, UNICEF (2012) defines life skills as a series of capacities, behaviors and socio-emotional qualifications that enable learners to make decisions and carry out rights to lead a positive and fruitful life. Life skills develop mental well-being and effectiveness in learners. These skills assist the expansion of basic skills such as literacy, numeracy, digital skills and can also be employed in different fields, such as ecological education and developmental education. Life skills allow learners to take positive attitudes to take part in their communities, participate in progressive learning. WHO defines life skills as “Abilities for adaptive and positive behavior that enable individuals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life”. This means that life skills are the strategies, abilities, expertise or competences that enable learners to develop positive behavior and responsible attitudes, leading towards a healthy lifestyle and preparing learners for changing social circumstances. As such a life skill refers to a learner’s ability or competence, throughout his life, from early years into puberty.
According to the definitions, these skills are initially related to the learner’s own well-being but gradually evolve to reflect his environment and personal relationships. Achieving these skills leads to selfesteem, friendliness, and forgiveness; to the power to make action and change; and ultimately to the independence to choose what to do and who to be. Life skills are capabilities that empower learners to occupy positive action, to protect them and have positive-effective social relationships, thereby promoting both their mental well-being and personal development as they are facing the realities of life. Described in that trend, skills that may be stated to be life skills are countless, and the definition and the classification of these skills are probably to be different across cultures. According to many major organizations including UNICEF, UNESCO, and WHO, the following are the basic life skills.
Described in that trend, skills that may be stated to be life skills are countless, and the definition and the classification of these skills are probably to be different across cultures. According to many major organizations including UNICEF, UNESCO, and WHO, the following are the basic life skills.
Self-Awareness: Self-Awareness means the ability to understand ourselves. It involves awareness of our own emotions, behavior, strength, weakness, etc.
Empathy: Empathy is another important life skill that helps us understand others in a better way. It is the ability of an individual to understand and accept others whose thinking and behavior may be different from ours.
Critical thinking: Critical thinking is the ability to think critically or to make intentional and intelligent judgments about people, objects, events, etc.
Creative thinking: Creative thinking is a process through which people may develop something new; it may be new or unique things, ideas, etc. This creative process involves evaluating the existing situations and developing new ideas or solutions.
Decision making: Decision-making is another important life skill that helps us to make the right decisions. It is the ability of an individual to choose the right choice among the available options or alternatives.
Problem solving: Problem-solving is the ability of an individual to find out every possible solution to the problems of life, this skill helps an individual to face problems confidently and find out effective solutions.
Effective communication: Effective communication refers to both the verbal and non-verbal communication ability of an individual. It helps us to develop our communication skills and improve our ability to express not only feelings and wishes but also needs and anxiety, stress, and seeking guidance from others.
Interpersonal relationship: Interpersonal relationship is the ability that enables us to collaborate positively with others. It helps us to maintain friendly relationships in the family or in society.
Coping with stress: Stress is an inevitable part of human life. Every individual feels stress in their life; may it be academic stress, work stress, or any other personal stress. Therefore, coping with stress skill helps us to identify the source of stress in our lives and to manage it effectively which ultimately lead to living a happy life.
Coping with emotions: Coping with emotions is the ability to understand the emotions of ourselves as well as others. It helps us understand how emotions influence the behavior of an individual and respond appropriately to different emotions (Mohammad BA et al., 2021).
These skills interfere, with each of them assisting and supporting the others. There may also be other life skills and there may be subcategories of life skills within each of these Basic life skill types.
International models of life skills There are many classifications to life skills. The researchers found taxonomies of basic life skills for classifying a wide domain of life skills implied in the content, textbooks, and curricula. UNICEF (2020) clarified on its website that there is no conclusive list of life skills and many life skills are employed simultaneously in the application. For example, decision-making included critical thinking and values clarification. The relationship between life skills is what builds powerful outcomes. The choice of different life skills varies according to the subject, needs, and situations.
UNESCO (2012) lists life skills as: problem solving, critical thinking, effective communication skills, decisionmaking, creative thinking, interpersonal relationship skills, self-awareness building skills, empathy, and coping with stress and emotions. The World Health Organization (2014) classified life skills into; critical thinking skills/Decision-making skills, interpersonal and Communication skills and coping and self-management skills .Also, Saravanakumar (2020) classified life skills classification into; skills of knowing and living with oneself, skills of knowing and living with others and skills of effective decision making (Bardhan A et al., 2016).
Need of life skills
Learners require the capacity for controlling their feelings, acting responsibly and overcoming with stress and difficulties in a skillful way. Life skills allow learners to interpret their knowledge and values into practical abilities which make learners enable to know what to do and how to do. These skills allow learners to be more respective, responsible and productive members of their society. By achieving life skills, learners tend to maximize their gladness by making smart decisions.
They focus on the difficulties, prospects and strengths of learners in the hope that convert and self-development. Life skills are at a premium and learners requiring being in collaboration environment. Therefore, thoughtful integration of life skills topics into the curricula can sensitize learners to future actualities and improving values and skills needful for cooperation with others. Life skills are necessary to empower learners to cope with their life successfully and its challenges and prepare them to understand and respond appropriately to daily events as well as important situations in life.
Conducted research aimed to analyze the chemistry textbooks for the preparatory stage according to life skills. The researchers prepared a list of life skills included thirty skills for seven fields that are necessary for analyzing chemistry textbooks for achieving the aims of the research. The research adopted the analytical descriptive approach, the research sample consisted of three textbooks, a chemistry textbook for the 4th scientific grade, and a chemistry textbook for the 5th grade for (bio-applied), the researchers analyzed the content of the chemistry.
Textbook for the 4th and 5th scientific grades in the (biological -applied) branch according to the modified tool. The researchers adopted the concept unit (explicit and implicit) as a unit for recording and repetition and as a unit for the census and to ensure the validity of the analysis, then analyzing a random sample and presenting it to a group of arbitrators. The arbitrators agreed on the validity of the analysis, and the stability of the analysis was calculated between the researchers and themselves over a period of time and presented to external analysts using the Copper equation. The results showed that the chemistry textbook for the 5th preparatory scientific (biological) grade at a frequency of (4791) with a percentage of (40.80%) among the three textbooks, The Chemistry textbook for the 4th preparatory scientific class came in second place with a frequency of (3547) with a percentage of (30.21%), and in the last place was the Chemistry textbook for the 5th preparatory class, the scientific branch (applied) with a frequency of (3402) with a percentage of (28.97%), according to For these results, the researchers recommended a number of recommendations, including 1-Taking into account the areas of life skills which percentages are few in the chemistry textbooks for the preparatory stage. 2-Taking into account consistency, integration, and balance in the ratios of including life skills fields in chemistry textbooks for the preparatory stage. The researchers suggested a number of suggestions, including conducting a similar study analyzing the textbooks of (science) chemistry textbook for the 3rd intermediate grade according to life skills and training educational cadres on the use of educational aids, modern applications, and educational strategies to teach life skills in the learning process.
Study aimed to identify the extent of integration, division, and balance of life skills in the Sharia sciences textbooks in the 4th, 5th, and 6th grades of the basic stage.
The population and sample of the study consisted of the whole content of the pupils and activities’ textbooks for those three grades of basic stage. The areas of life skills analyzed were time management, decision-making, problem-solving, social communication, personal skills, and higher thinking skills). The descriptive-analytical approach was used to collect and analyze data. The findings showed that the life skills areas were distributed unevenly in Sharia sciences textbooks. The findings also showed that the area of social communication was incorporated more than the remaining areas and that the areas of personal skills and higher thinking skills were fairly incorporated in some textbooks. The rest of the areas of life skills were incorporated with a lessthan- expected ratio and the time management area were among the least incorporated areas, which demands reconsideration of life skills distribution and incorporation in the Sharia sciences textbooks to create a balanced distribution.
Conducted a study aimed at identifying the degree to which Secondary school teachers in Jordan possess ‘life skills”. A descriptive survey method was used. The study consisted of 91 Secondary teachers in the Za'tari. Camp distributed among six (6) Secondary schools. The researcher developed a questionnaire consisting of (36) items addressing four main domains: Communication skills، positive thinking، anger management، and decision-making and problem solving. The study showed that the Secondary school teachers exhibit a moderate level of life skills، and there were statistically significant differences in life skills between genders، with female teachers possessing slightly higher level of life skills. There were statistically significant differences also based on time in the teaching profession، with teachers with more than 10 years of experience demonstrating higher life skills. There were also statistically significant differences based on academic qualifications among teachers، in favor of those teachers who have completed postgraduate studies. The life skills of decision-making and problem were ranked highest، with an average of (3.96) ، while anger management came last with an average of (2.75).
Al-Qusairy (2018) conducted a study aimed to identify the degree to which students in the first three grades achieve life skills from the female teachers' perspectives. The sample consisted of (112) female teachers of Bani Kenanah educational directorate. The researcher has chosen the sample according to random-cluster sampling technique. A questionnaire was used to elicit data to identify the degree to which students in the first three grades acquire life skills from the female teachers' perspectives. The findings indicated that the degree to which students achieve life skills fell in the "medium" category. The obtained findings also showed that there were statistical differences in the female teachers' ratings attributed to academic qualifications in favor of female teachers holding bachelor degree or lower. In addition, the results revealed no statistical differences in the female teachers' ratings attributed to female teachers' years of teaching experience or the class they teach.
In the light of the results, the researcher recommended the reinstating the teaching of prevocational education subject which includes all fields of life skills for the first three grades students. Conducted their study aimed to identify the life skills included in the text book of English for the sixth Basic grade in Amman and the degree of students' acquisition it of these skills, from their teachers 'perspective. The sample of the study contained from all pages of the text book of English for the sixth Basic grade. Teachers sample consisted (322) teachers from three directorates. The researchers prepared both instrument of study the form, and the analysis of the level distributed on three main fields: mental skills, practical skills and social skills. Also they prepared a questionnaire consists of (26) items in three domains.
The results indicated that the degree of availability of life skills included in the English language textbook for the sixth Basic grade was high in the field of mental skills, with a percentage (45%), and in the field of practical manual skills, it came with a moderate degree, at a rate of (34%). Social skills came at a low rate, at a rate of (21%). Also, the finding showed that the degree of students' acquisition it of these skills, from their teachers ' perspective with an intermediate degree and in all three fields of study and there are no differences according to the variables: gender, educational qualification, and level of experience, with the exception of the gender variable in the field of social skills and in favor of females. Aimed in his study to analyze the life skills included in the sciences books for the elementary stage in Iraq. Content analysis has been applied using a valid and reliable instrument included the life skills distributed to five domains: health skills, nutrition skills, and environmental skills and manual skills. The sample consisted of the sciences textbooks for fourth, fifth, and sixth elementary grade in Iraq. The findings indicated that the fourth grade textbook come at the first rank regarding the life skills by (10) frequencies, followed by the sixth grade textbook by (11) frequencies, and finally the fifth grade textbook by (11) frequencies. The manual skills field came first in the three textbooks together by (11) frequencies, then environmental skills field by (11) frequencies, then the health skills field by (18) frequencies, then, the nutrition skills field by (16) frequencies, and finally the precautionary skills field by (61) frequencies. From the reviewed studies, it is clear that all studies were related to life skills through analysis and the level of achievement. The researchers analyzed different school subjects, such as who analyzed the life skills in English language textbooks. The study of analyzed life skills in science textbooks. Moreover, the study of analyzed the life skills in Sharia sciences textbooks. The study of identified the degree to possess life skills. The present study seeks to analyze English language textbooks for the Secondary stage to find out the degree of the availability of life skills. This study differs from the reviewed studies because it analyzes English language textbooks for the Secondary stage. There are no, to the researchers’ best knowledge, studies that analyzed English language textbooks, specifically under the study.
In this study, the researchers came out with his own model to analyze the life skills implied in English language textbooks for the secondary stage in Jordan. The researchers come out with a result that it is a must to include a variety of life skills in the English language textbooks for the secondary stage in Jordan. Accordingly, Jordanian learners should master these life skills and apply them in their real-life situations to be good members who serve their society and benefit themselves. The researchers believe that the textbooks including the list of life skills help learners to communicate effectively, develop positive habits, ideal thoughts, and ideas, think critically and creatively also devise. A variety of ways to solve problems, take the correct decisions, increase interpersonal relationship, build self-awareness, establish empathy, cope with stress and emotions.The researchers also assert on implementing those life skills in the content of English language textbooks for the secondary stage in Jordan due to its importance in daily life situations. Life skills provide Jordanian learners with the needed skills for being effective members of their societies. They are used every day for managing daily life situations, communicating with people, being active members, making important decisions, solving problems, thinking critically and enhancing the quality of life in order to enhance learners' participation in all aspects of life. These skills help learners in social, academic, professional and in all daily life situations. The researchers believe that life skills are mental, intellectual, psychological, emotional, behavioral, interpersonal and social skills. They enable learners to think creatively and critically in order to solve their problems and be good members in their societies. Those skills enable learners to communicate with people, have leadership characteristics, live peacefully in a society, make decisions, solve problems, and think critically in a variety of situations. It is concluded that life skills are those competencies that support learners in functioning well in the environments they live in.
A descriptive analytical method was used to carry out the study. The researchers conducted this method due to its relevance and suitability for investigating life skills included in the English language textbooks for secondary stage in Jordan.
The population of the study
The population of this study consisted of all English language textbooks of the secondary stage in Jordan "Action Back" series during the scholastic year 2021- 2022 and distributed among the 11th to the 12th classes. Table 1 shows the distribution of the modules among the two textbooks of the secondary stage as follows:
|12th grade||11th grade||Grade|
The researchers believed that the most suitable tool for achieving the purposes of the study is conducting a content analysis card for collecting, describing, and analyzing data for investigating the existence of life skills in the English language textbooks for the secondary stage in Jordan. It is explained that a modified content analysis card instrument was developed by the researchers and refereed by a panel of experts for use to carry out the study. The researchers modified their model benefiting from the previous studies, literature review, theoretical framework, and the international standard models for classifying life skills implied in the content.
A content analysis card was used by the researchers based on life skills. This content analysis card consisted of nine life skills “(1) Problem-solving (2) Critical thinking (3) Effective communication, (4) Decision making, (5) Creative thinking (6) Interpersonal relationship (7) Selfawareness building (8) Empathy (9) Coping with stress and emotions”. It aimed to collect and analyze the life skills included in English language textbooks for the secondary stage in Jordan.
• Analysis objective: The content analysis aimed to identify the inclusion of life skills included in English.
• language textbooks for the secondary stage in Jordan.
• Analysis sample: The sample of the study consisted of all the activities in English language textbooks for the secondary stage in Jordan.
• Analysis categories: The categories of analysis are life skills.
• Analysis units: The unit of analysis used in the
• study was the words, signs, and pictures in each activity in the English language textbooks for the secondary stage in Jordan which shows or indicates the specific life skill.
Coding unit: The coding unit is the smallest unit that the researchers use for counting and measuring. The researchers depended on the activity as the coding unit of the analysis as the English language textbooks for the secondary stage are built on activity-based-curriculum, so the analysis units are the activities in the textbooks.
The final frame of the content analysis card The researchers investigated the views of curriculum and Instruction professors, English supervisors, and English teachers. They submitted the first list of life skills to the panel of the jury to decide which of the life skills are more important and appropriate for the Jordanian learners. The panel of the jury refereed the list by adding, deleting, and modifying the items and agreed on (38) items distributed into the nine domains. The panel of the jury refereed the content analysis card.
Reliability of the analysis card
Reliability through time: The researchers repeated the analysis process of the whole content of the secondary stage English language textbooks in Jordan after thirty days to investigate the reliability of the content analysis. The Cronbach alpha was computed as (0.83). The reliability is equal (0.83) and its significant at (α=0.01).
|9||coping with stress and emotions||0.86|
It is evident from table 2 that the re-analysis reliability coefficient range between (0.77-0.88) and through the results, it is clear that the analysis card has good reliability indications.
Reliability through people
To examine the reliability of the analysis process, the researchers asked for the cooperation of an English teacher to re-analyze the content of 6 random sample modules out of the secondary stage textbooks. It is agreed on choosing three modules for each Grade. The Cronbach alpha was calculated as is shown in Table 3.
|9||Coping with stress and emotions||0.82|
Table 3 shows the values of the reliability coefficient using the internal consistency method Cronbach's alpha which ranged between (0.73 - 0.89), which means that the analysis card has an acceptable and good degree of reliability.
Content analysis steps
The English language textbooks of the secondary stage according to life skills were analyzed on the following steps:
• Reading the content of all English language textbooks of the secondary stage in Jordan "Action Back" series
• (Student's Book and Activity Book), as an initial reading in order to understand some stuff up by the researchers’ mind.
• Re-reading all English language textbooks of the secondary stage in a more precise way in order to identify ideas, skills, and vocabulary to record the repetition.
• Classify the life skills according to the modified classification.
• Making tables for the findings and tabulating them.
• Statistical analysis of the findings and the extraction of the life skills for the analysis.
The researchers used the following statistical forms:
• Frequencies and percentages.
• Cronbach’s alpha formula
The researchers modified and refereed the content analysis card to analyze the content of English language textbooks of the secondary stage in Jordan. Content analysis card was designed to collect the relevant data regarding the study question "What is the degree of availability of life skills in the English language textbooks for the Secondary stage?"
Table 4 shows that there are ( 5397) life skills included in the Secondary stage English language textbooks in Jordan, the effective communicative life skills domain gets the highest score of 30.10%, 1625 frequencies. The next score is the interpersonal relationship life skills domain.
|Problem solving life skills||609||0.1128||3|
|Critical thinking life skills||264||0.0489||9|
|Effective communicative life skills||1625||0.3011||1|
|Decision making life skills||557||0.1032||5|
|Creative thinking life skills||368||0.0682||7|
|Interpersonal relationship life skills||662||0.1227||2|
|Self-Awareness building life skills||576||0.1067||4|
|Empathy life skills||360||0.0667||8|
|Coping with stress and emotions of life skills||376||0.0697||6|
It got a score of 12.27%, 662 frequencies. Problem solving life skills domain is in the third position with 11.28%, 609 frequencies.
The fourth is the self-awareness building life skills domain that gets 10.67%, 576 frequencies.
The fifth is the decision making life skills domain that gets 10.32%, 557 frequencies. The sixth is the coping with stress and emotions life skills domain that gets 6.98%, 377 frequencies. The seventh is the creative thinking life skills domain that gets 6.82%, 368 frequencies. The eighth is the empathy life skills domain that gets 6.67%, 360 frequencies. The lowest score is critical thinking life skills domain with only 4.89%, 264 frequencies.
|Item||Problem solving life skills||Total||Percentage||Rank|
|1||Considering the causes||145||0.2381||2|
|2||Considering the solutions||127||0.2085||3|
|3||Acting and testing||103||0.1691||4|
|4||Planning and designing project||234||0.3842||1|
Table 5 presents the percentage of frequencies for each item in the Problem-Solving life skills domain out of the total percentage of frequencies. The item "Planning and designing project" got the highest score in a percentage of 38.42%, 243 frequencies. The researcher considers these results strong if they are compared with the total percentage of the domain frequencies. "Considering the causes" items got the second score in a percentage of 23.81%, 145 frequency. The "Considering the solution" item is in the third sort in a percentage of 20.85%, 127 frequencies.
|Item||Critical thinking life skills||Total||Percentage||Rank|
|1||Analyzing attitudes, values||69||0.2614||3|
|Social norms and beliefs|
|2||Thinking in different ways||76||0.2879||1|
Table 6 presents the percentage of frequencies for each item in the critical thinking life skills domain out of the total percentage of frequencies. The item “Thinking in different ways” got the highest score in a percentage of 28.79%, 76 frequencies. The “Analyzing data” item got the second store in a percentage of 27.65%, 73 frequencies. The “Analyzing attitudes, values, social norms and beliefs” item got the third score in a percentage of 26.14%, 69 frequencies. The lowest item is “Organizing thoughts” in a percentage of 17.42%, 46 f requencies (Bardhan A et al., 2016).
|Item||Effective Communicative Life Skills||Total||Percentage||Rank|
|1||Effective verbal and non-verbal communication with others||383||0.2357||2|
|2||Listening carefully to what others say||459||0.2825||1|
|3||Expressing ideas and opinions clearly||198||0.1218||4|
|4||Giving and receiving feedback||157||0.0966||5|
|5||Understanding other's viewpoints||207||0.1274||3|
|7||Influencing and persuading others||93||0.0572||7|
Table 7 presents the percentage of frequencies for each item in the effective communicative life skills domain out of the total percentage of frequencies. The 23.57%, 383 item “Listening carefully to what others say” got the highest score in a percentage of 28.25%, 459 frequencies. The researcher thinks that Listening carefully to what others say got this score because English language textbooks for the Secondary stage depend mainly on listening and reading in most of its exercises (Fitz Patrick S et al., 2018). The “Effective verbal and non-verbal communication with others” item got the second in a percentage of frequencies. The “Understanding other's viewpoints” item got the third an average of 12.74%, 207 frequencies. The “Expressing ideas and opinions clearly” items got the fourth in a percentage 12.18%, 198 frequencies. The “Giving and receiving feedback” item got the fifth an average of 9.66%, 157 frequencies. Whereas the " Demonstrating respect” items got the sixth in a percentage 7.88%, 128 frequencies. The lowest item is “Influencing & persuading others” in a percentage of 5.72%, 93 frequencies (Dhanasekaran M et al., 2018).
|Item||Decision Making Life Skills||Total||Percentage||Rank|
Table 8 presents the percentage of frequencies for each item in the decision making life skills domain out of the total percentage of frequencies. The item "Leadership" got the highest score in a percentage of 38.60%, 215 frequencies. The "Goal setting" item got the second in a percentage of 22.44%, 125 frequencies. The "Evaluating decisions" item got the third an average of 20.29%, 113 frequencies. The lowest item is "Punctuality" in a percentage of 18.67%, 69 frequencies.
|Item||Creative thinking life skills||Total||Percentage||Rank|
Table 9 presents the percentage of frequencies for each item in the creative thinking life skills domain out of the total percentage of frequencies. The item "Applying technology" got the highest score in a percentage of 34.51%, 127 frequencies. The “Creative imagination item got the second in a percentage of 25.54%, 94 frequencies. The “Brainstorming” item got the third an average of 21.47%, 79 frequencies. The lowest item is "experimentation" in a percentage of 18.48%, 68 frequencies.
|Item||Interpersonal relationship life skills||Total||Percentage||Rank|
|1||Establishing positive relationships||213||0.3218||1|
|2||Respecting and appreciating morals, values, rights, and norms||155||0.2341||3|
|4||Admitting to mistakes||137||0.2069||4|
Table 10 presents the percentage of frequencies for each item in the interpersonal relationship life skills domain out of the total percentage of frequencies.
The item "Establishing positive relationships" got the highest score in a percentage of 32.18%, 213 frequencies.
The “Following instructions” item got the second in apercentage of 23.72%, 157 frequencies. The “Respecting and appreciating morals, values, rights, and norms” item got the third an average of 23.41%, 155 frequencies. The lowest item is "Admitting to mistakes" in a percentage of 20.69%, 137 frequencies (Monteiro R et al., 2016).
|Item||Self-awareness building life skills||Total||Percentage||Rank|
|1||Building self-confidence and self esteem||82||0.1424||5|
Table 11 presents the percentage of frequencies for each item in the self-awareness building life skills domain out of the total percentage of frequencies. The item "Work cooperatively" got the highest score in a percentage of 26.56%, 153 frequencies. The "Selfexpression" item got the second in a percentage of 21.70%, 125 frequencies. The "Demonstrating responsibility" item got the third an average of 19.62%, 113 frequencies. The “Self-evaluation” item got the fourth an average of 17.88%, 61 frequencies. The lowest item is “Building self-confidence and self-esteem” in a percentage of 12.18%, 48 frequencies Table 12 presents the percentage of frequencies for each item in the empathy life skills domain out of the total percentage of frequencies. The item “Supporting others” got the highest score in a percentage of 37.50%, 135 frequencies. The “Accepting others” item got the second in a percentage of 36.67%, 132 frequencies. The lowest item is "Caring about others' needs" in a percentage of 25.83%, 93 frequencies.
|Item||Empathy life skills||Total||Percentage||Rank|
|1||Caring about others' needs||93||0.2583||3|
|Item||Coping with stress and emotions of life skills||Total||Percentage||Rank|
|1||Dealing with conflict and stress||82||0.2181||2|
|2||Recognizing the sources of stress||69||0.1835||4|
|3||Recognizing the effects of stress||63||0.1676||5|
|5||Responding to emotions||83||0.2207||1|
Table 13 presents the percentage of frequencies for each item in the coping with stress and emotions of life skills domain out of the total percentage of frequencies. The item “Responding to emotions” got the highest score in a percentage of 22.07%, 83 frequencies. The “Dealing with conflict and stress” item got the second in a percentage of 21.8%, 82 frequencies. The "Recognizing emotions" item got the third an average of 21.01%, 79 frequencies. The "Recognizing the sources of stress" item got the fourth an average of 18.35%, 69 frequencies.
The lowest item is "Recognizing the effects of stress" in a percentage of 16.76%, 63 frequencies.
The findings of the study show that there is a variance in presenting the nine domains of life skills in the Secondary stage English language textbooks. Even in the one domain, there is a variance in presenting the items.
The effective communicative life skills domain got the highest score in the results of analyzing Secondary stage English language textbooks in Jordan. It got 30.11% out of the total percentage of the results of the analysis. It indicates the importance of effective communicative life skills latent in the content of the Secondary stage English language textbooks. The researchers in this study found that effective communication is an essential skill. It motivates learners to be successful in living a productive and receptive satisfying life. It enables them to be successful in society. The exchange of thoughts, information, or messages between individuals is needed to convey the understanding of the conducted messages. Students should learn how to listen to others and the techniques to communicate clearly.
The interpersonal relationship life skills domain got the second score of 12.27% out of the total average in the content analysis. The results indicate to what extent textbook prepares the students for society. Presenting these items in the content proves the importance of the study in preparing good students for themselves and their society. These items encourage students to acquire some characteristics, which enable them to do what is right in accordance with the social norms. The researchers believe in creating a generation that is responsible for his personality in order to obtain his society's traditions, thoughts, and beliefs. Developing and implementing personal and interpersonal life skills would lead to personal growth and social competence and thus contributing to the optimal social functioning of behavior in the classroom, school, family, and community (Singh N et al., 2015).
The third score is problem-solving life skills which got 11.28% out of the total average out of the nine domains. This domain concentrates on training students on how to consider the causes and the solutions develop acting and testing skills and how plan and design projects. The fourth score is self-awareness building life skills which got 10.67% out of the total average out of the nine domains. This domain concentrates on training students how to increase internal locus of control through building self-confidence and self-esteem, self-expression, selfevaluation, and demonstrating responsibility and work cooperatively. The fifth score decision making life skills which got 10.32% out of the total average out of the nine domains. This domain concentrates on training students how to increase creative thinking skills through goal setting, evaluating decisions, punctuality, and leadership that lead Secondary stage students to be good at career planning and entrepreneurship. The transitional period from the Secondary stage into university or career work needs good decision-makers and needs more emphasis and concentration. The sixth score is coping with stress and emotional life skills which got 6.97% out of the total average out of the nine domains. This domain concentrates on dealing with conflict and stress, recognizing the sources and the effects of stress, recognizing stress and emotions also responding to emotions. The seventh score is creative thinking life skills which got 6.82% out of the total average out of the nine domains. This domain concentrates on training students on how to increase creative thinking skills through brainstorming, creative imagination, experimentation, and applying technology. The eighth score is empathy life skills which got 6.67% out of the total average out of the nine domains. This domain concentrates on training students on how to increase empathy skills through caring about others' needs, supporting others, accepting others. It may need more emphasis and concentration. The lowest score is critical thinking life skills which got 4.89% out of the total average out of the nine domains. This domain concentrates on training students how to increase critical thinking skills through analyzing attitudes, values, social norms, and beliefs, thinking in different ways, analyzing data, and organizing thoughts. Life skills distribution indicates the lack of a good strategy based on the design and development of English language textbooks for the Secondary stage in the distribution of life skills and the extent mentioned in this stage's textbooks (Yadav P et al., 2009)
The main discussion touched on the variance that occurred in the distribution of the nine main domains in the English language textbooks for the secondary stage in Jordan. The nine main domains got the following results: effective communicative gets 30.11%, the interpersonal relationship gets 12.27%, 662 frequencies. Problem-solving gets 11.28%, self-awareness building gets 10.67%, decision making gets 10.32%, coping with stress and emotions l gets 6.97%, creative thinking gets 6.82%, gets 6.67%, critical thinking with only 4.89%. The findings of the study showed that there is variance in presenting the nine main domains in the English language textbooks for the secondary stage. Even in the one domain, there is a variance in presenting the items. Life skills distribution indicates the lack of a good strategy based on the design and development of English language textbooks for the secondary stage in the distribution of life skills and the extent mentioned in this stage's textbooks. Whereas, some of the life skills recorded very few percentages which are not accepted, where is considered effective on the level of learner education life skills. So what is required is to include these life skills in English language textbooks for the secondary stage.