International Research Journals

International Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Soil Science

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Editorial - International Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Soil Science ( 2023) Volume 12, Issue 1

Google Earth Mapping with Help from Citizen Science the Acceptance of Hypotheses in Seven Publications in Soil Science

Feyissa Tileye*
National Centre for Soil Research Embrapa Soils, Brazil
*Corresponding Author:
Feyissa Tileye, National Centre for Soil Research Embrapa Soils, Brazil, Email:

Received: 31-Dec-2022, Manuscript No. IRJAS-23-85594; Editor assigned: 02-Jan-2023, Pre QC No. IRJAS-23-85594; Reviewed: 16-Jan-2023, QC No. IRJAS-23-85594; Revised: 21-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. IRJAS-23-85594 (R); Published: 28-Jan-2023, DOI: 10.14303/2251-0044.2023.01


Participation of non-specialists in scientific research is a crucial component of citizen science. Within the confines of the project's structures, the citizen participates as an observer or experimenter. The development of enabling technology, which is typified by the spatially-enabled "smart" phone with mapping applications and its accompanying networks, including the GPS system, is to blame for the current growth in initiatives. Two goals of citizen science initiatives are to increase the impact of scientific research and to increase public acceptance of and understanding of science. The OPAL Soil and Earthworm Survey, GLOBE, and mySoil are current citizen scientific efforts, although they are not intended for soil mapping. We identify the categories of citizens who might be inspired to participate in such activities and propose digital soil mapping (DSM) citizen science initiatives for nations with and without well-organized extension and advisory services and existing soil surveys. Tactic knowledge, opportunistic or protocol-guided new information, information from precision agriculture, and tangible samples sent for analysis are all examples of contributions. The professional mapper who uses digital data to create or improve soil property or type maps would be the main beneficiary of such initiatives. The citizen scientist, who would gain from an improved map, would be the secondary beneficiary. would be the citizen scientist, who would gain from a more accurate map and might be better equipped to participate in discussions about soil resource policy. Participation would also improve the connection between the citizen and the soil resource. presence and acceptance rates of manuscripts with hypotheses were examined in seven top soil journals. The study's objectives were to measure soil science hypothesis testing and look into how it changed over time. The journals were Applied Soil Ecology, Biochemistry and Fertility of Soils, Geoderma, Plant and Soil, European Journal of Soil Science, and Soil & Tillage Research. Over that time, the seven journals collectively published 15,344 pieces. 74% of the 620 papers in the sample evaluated one hypothesis, 20% tested two or more, and 6% presented a hypothesis. n = 783) of the tested hypotheses were accepted in total, and the acceptance rate for the seven journals was 66% (Teuber M et al ., 2001).


Carbon respiration, Heat production, Microbial energetics, Calorimetry, Microbial C use efficienc


(Miranda JL et al., 2014)The participation of non-scientists in scientific research is a fundamental component of citizen science, which has many different definitions. In most cases, a person participates in a citizen scientific project as an observer or experimentalist; perhaps the term "citizenassisted science" is a better way to describe it. Most citizen science initiatives aim to advance and support science. (Ruel MT et al., 2013) They serve two objectives: to get nonscientists involved in promoting science In science, the word "hypothesis" has several different meanings. A hypothesis can be thought of as the predicate of an if-then statement, as a speculation, as an explanation of an observed pattern for an observation, phenomenon, or scientific problem that can be tested by additional research, or as an imaginative conjecture that represents the first stage of scientific inquiry. A hypothesis, in the words of Earman and Salmon, is a claim that is meant to be evaluated in terms of its outcomes considered a hypothesis to be a prediction or inference made from a specific theory. defined hypothesis from postulate, which is a data statement built to provide a logical test for a postulate .If a hypothesis can be evaluated in a lab or in the field, it is categorised as experimental. Alternatively, if they refer to historical causes, they are unlikely to be replicated in an experiment for phenomena that are currently visible.

In biology, soil science, and geology, historical assumptions are accepted. The varying definitions have resulted in improper usage, and a hypothesis is occasionally used interchangeably with a theory, a theory's axioms, or a postulation. A hypothesis is a general assumption that has to be investigated and that can either be confirmed or rejected (Headey D et al ., 2013) data gathering.

Applied Soil Ecology, Biology and Fertility of Soils, European Journal of Soil Science, Geoderma, Plant and Soil, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, and Soil & Tillage Research were the seven soil journals that served as the basis for the survey, which was conducted over a 13-year period from 2001 to 2013. The survey was carried out in two steps utilising the Scopus database from Elsevier. First, the journal ISSN was used to identify a total of 15,344 items(Deaton A et al., 2008). The scope of soil research extends much beyond simple soil mapping, and citizen soil science projects reflect this. This section examines ongoing and finished projects that aren't primarily focused on DSM in order of potential relevance(Headey DD et al., 2012).

Both of these aspects of citizen science are crucial for accurate soil mapping: by involving citizens in the observation of soils and their landscapes, a greater understanding of soil geography can be attained the "connectivity" between soil and citizen described; and by increasing the density and geographic spread of observations. We only examine the potential contributions of a non-specialist, or someone who is untrained in soil survey. Contrarily, initiatives like World(Crippen TL et al., 2009)

We identify five categories of information that citizen scientists can contribute: tacit knowledge, opportunistic newly acquired information, protocol-guided newly acquired information, information amassed through precision agriculture practise, and physical samples submitted for examination. Direct observations of soil characteristics for developing or confirming soil-environment relationships, or observations of soil-related covariables, can both serve as sources of information (Schjørring S et al ., 2010).

It seems obvious that each DSM project, such as map updating in a national soil survey organisation or a new soil property map, must design its own project given the diversity of existing soil survey products available to the citizen, the diversity of institutional and general cultures, different legal frameworks and attitudes toward data ownership, and different exposures to existing citizen science initiatives.

This paper aims to encourage such initiatives, and here we outline some of the (Nayak R et al., 2021)


To our knowledge, this study is the first to quantify and analyse the testing of hypotheses in soil science, and it looked at seven prominent soil science journals. We've tallied the number of papers that contained one or more hypotheses and looked into historical trends. Between the journals and over time, differences were discovered. We will compare our findings to similar studies in other scientific fields and concentrate on a potential data explanation of some of the discrepancies and similarities in this discussion(Headey DD et al., 2012).


Citizen science has sparked active participation in a wide range of projects across many sectors and has attracted the attention of millions of people across the world. For a variety of reasons, soil science has only played a very little role in this. Soil is not as "beautiful" as birds, plants, or stars; Soil is not as easily "visible" as the atmosphere or biosphere; Citizens know little about soil science in comparison to other sciences that are widely popular, such as astronomy and medicine.


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