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Expert Review - Educational Research ( 2023) Volume 14, Issue 2

The Quality of Educational Development in Nigeria

Obeza E Luise*
School of Education, Faculty of Social Sciences & Humanities, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81310, Malaysia
*Corresponding Author:
Obeza E Luise, School of Education, Faculty of Social Sciences & Humanities, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81310, Malaysia, Email:

Received: 03-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. Er-23-92342; Editor assigned: 06-Mar-2023, Pre QC No. Er-23-92342; Reviewed: 20-Mar-2023, QC No. Er-23-92342; Revised: 27-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. Er-23-92342; Published: 31-Mar-2023, DOI: 10.14303/2141-5161.2023.257


Nigeria is a country located in West Africa and is home to over 200 million people. It is the most populous country in Africa and has a diverse culture and a rich history. One of the most significant challenges that Nigeria has faced in recent years is the development of its education sector. However, there has been some progress in this area in recent years. In this article, we will discuss the educational development in Nigeria, including the challenges faced and the progress made.


Education, Primary schools, Children


One of the major challenges in the Nigerian education system is inadequate funding. The education sector in Nigeria has been consistently underfunded for many years, which has resulted in a shortage of qualified teachers, inadequate educational infrastructure, and a lack of learning materials. This has led to a low quality of education and low literacy rates in the country.

Another significant challenge is the lack of access to education for many Nigerian children, particularly girls. In Nigeria, many families prioritize the education of boys over girls, which have resulted in a gender gap in education. This, combined with poverty and the lack of educational infrastructure in rural areas, has led to many children being unable to attend school (Anderson B et al., 2015)( Barnes J et al., 2013)


Progress in Nigerian Education

Despite the challenges, Nigeria has made some progress in the education sector in recent years (Choquet A et al., 2018) (Clayton S et al., 2016). One of the most significant achievements is the increase in enrollment rates in primary schools. According to the United Nations, primary school enrollment rates in Nigeria have increased from 57% in 1999 to 71% in 2018. This increase can be attributed to government efforts to improve access to education and reduce the gender gap.

Additionally, the Nigerian government has launched several initiatives aimed at improving the quality of education in the country. One of the most significant initiatives is the Universal Basic Education (UBE) program, which aims to provide free and compulsory education to every child in Nigeria. The program has been successful in improving access to education and reducing the number of out-ofschool children in the country (Dunn G et al., 2017).

Another initiative is the Tertiary Education Trust Fund (TETFund), which provides funding for research and development in Nigerian universities, polytechnics, and colleges of education. This has resulted in an improvement in the quality of education and research in these institutions.Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, with a population of over 200 million people. Education is a fundamental tool for development and growth, yet Nigeria's education system is in a state of disrepair, which is impeding the country's growth and development. The development of education in Nigeria has been backward for several reasons, and in this article, we will explore some of the key factors (Eigenbrode SD et al., 2007).

Poor funding

One of the major reasons why the development of education in Nigeria is backward is poor funding. Education is critical to any country's development, but the Nigerian government has not allocated enough resources to education. The current allocation to education is only about 7% of the national budget, which is far below the UNESCO recommended minimum of 26%. This poor funding has led to a lack of basic facilities in schools, poor teacher welfare, and inadequate instructional materials (Fiksel J et al., 2014).

Poor infrastructure

The education system in Nigeria is plagued by poor infrastructure. Many schools lack basic facilities like classrooms, laboratories, libraries, and even basic furniture. This poor infrastructure affects the quality of education that students receive, making it difficult for them to learn in a conducive environment (Glika DC et al., 2007).

Poor teacher training and welfare

Another significant factor contributing to the backward development of education in Nigeria is the poor training and welfare of teachers. Many teachers in Nigeria are not adequately trained to teach, and there are not enough qualified teachers to meet the demand. In addition, many teachers in Nigeria are not paid adequately, which affects their motivation and ability to deliver quality education.


Corruption is a significant problem in Nigeria, and it has affected every sector, including education. Corruption has led to the mismanagement of education funds, which has further worsened the backward development of education in the country. The mismanagement of funds has resulted in inadequate funding for education, which affects the provision of basic facilities and the quality of education (Hoover E et al., 2015).

Poor policy implementation

The Nigerian government has developed several policies aimed at improving the education system, but poor implementation has rendered them ineffective. For example, the government introduced the Universal Basic Education (UBE) program to provide basic education for all children in the country. However, poor implementation has led to inadequate funding, poor infrastructure, and lowquality education.

Nigeria, with a population of over 200 million, is the most populous country in Africa. Despite being a country with vast human and natural resources, the education sector in Nigeria is currently in crisis. The education system has been plagued with several challenges, including inadequate funding, poor infrastructure, lack of access to quality education, and teacher training, among others. However, with the right solution, Nigeria can improve its educational development.

The following are some of the solutions for educational development in Nigeria

Increase in government funding

The Nigerian government should increase funding for education. Currently, only a small percentage of the national budget is allocated to the education sector. This lack of funding has resulted in the inadequate provision of basic educational infrastructure and learning materials. To improve educational development, the government should allocate more funds to the education sector.

Provision of basic educational infrastructure

Adequate educational infrastructure is essential for the development of the education sector. Schools in Nigeria are often in deplorable conditions, with inadequate classrooms, lack of libraries, laboratories, and computer rooms. The government should provide basic infrastructure such as classrooms, libraries, laboratories, and computer rooms in schools across the country.

Improving teacher training

The quality of education in Nigeria is closely linked to the quality of teachers in the education system. Teachers in Nigeria are often poorly trained, and this has resulted in lowquality education. The Nigerian government should invest in teacher training to improve the quality of education in the country. This can be achieved by organizing training programs, workshops, and seminars for teachers across the country.

Embracing technology

Technology is an essential tool for educational development. Nigeria should embrace technology to enhance the quality of education in the country. The government should provide schools with access to the internet, computers, and other technological devices to aid learning. Additionally, e-learning platforms can be developed to enable students to access educational materials remotely.

Partnership with the private sector

The private sector has a significant role to play in the development of the education sector. The Nigerian government should partner with the private sector to improve the quality of education in the country. The private sector can provide funding, resources, and technical expertise to support the development of the education sector (Maxwell K et al., 2015).


In conclusion, Nigeria's education sector needs urgent attention. The solutions highlighted above can help to improve the quality of education in the country. The government should prioritize education and invest in its development to create a better future for the country. Additionally, stakeholders in the education sector, including parents, teachers, and students, should work together to achieve this goal. With a concerted effort, Nigeria can achieve significant improvements in its educational development; the development of education in Nigeria is backward due to poor funding, poor infrastructure, poor teacher training and welfare, corruption, and poor policy implementation. Addressing these challenges is critical to improving the quality of education in Nigeria and ensuring that the country's citizens can compete in the global economy. The Nigerian government must prioritize education and allocate more resources to the sector to improve the education system's quality and promote economic growth and development, while there are still many challenges facing the Nigerian education system, there have been progress in recent years. The increase in primary school enrolment rates and the government's initiatives to improve access to education and funding for research and development are positive steps towards the development of the education sector. However, more needs to be done to address the challenges facing the education system, particularly in areas such as funding and access to education for girls. With continued effort and investment, Nigeria can achieve its goal of providing quality education for all its citizens.


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