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Research - African Journal of Food Science and Technology ( 2022) Volume 13, Issue 7

Efficiency of spent pleurotus mushroom substrate on growth of sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L.) moench)

Veera lakshmi P1* and Parani K2
 
1Research Scholar, Research Department of Botany, Sri Parasakthi College For Women (Autonomous), Courtallam– 627802, Affiliated to Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Abhishekapatti, Tirunelveli (Dt.)., Tamil Nadu, India
2Assistant Professor, PG and Research Department of Botany, Sri Parasakthi College For Women (Autonomous), Courtallam – 627802, Affiliated to Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Abhishekapatti, Tirunelveli (Dt.)., Tamil Nadu, India
 
*Corresponding Author:
Veera lakshmi P, Research Scholar, Research Department of Botany, Sri Parasakthi College For Women (Autonomous), Courtallam – 627802, Affiliated to Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Abhishekapatti, Tirunelveli (Dt.)., Tamil Nadu, India, Email: paranik@sriparasakthicollege.edu.in

Received: 30-Jun-2022, Manuscript No. AJFST-22-69951; Editor assigned: 02-Jul-2022, Pre QC No. AJFST-22-69951; Reviewed: 16-Jul-2022, QC No. AJFST-22-69951; Revised: 21-Jul-2022, Manuscript No. AJFST-22-69951; Published: 28-Jul-2022, DOI: http:/dx.doi.org/10.14303//ajfst.2022.035

Abstract

In the present study revealed that the trends and future research in food products and effect of SMS on morphological indicators of Sorghum seedlings. The highest percentage of germination (92%), shoot and root length i.e., 6.0 and 8.8 cm on 2nd week and 8.5 and 14.8 cm on 4th week of seedlings were observed in T3 Spent Pleurotus Mushroom Substrate + Bacterial isolate I6 respectively as compared to other treatments. The lowest germination percentage 56% was seen in control T0 (only soil). The growth rate also lowered as in seen T5 Oil palm mesocarp waste substrate alone i.e. shoot and root length recorded 2.3 and 4 cm on 2nd week and 3.4 and 6.8 cm in 4th week of seedlings. Both fresh and dry mass of plant differed significantly between treatments. To conclude that the SMS of Pleurotus sajor- caju of an excellent substrate for the production of Sorghum seedlings, as it provides the formation of vigorous and quality seedlings.

Keywords

Morphological indicators, Spent Pleurotus Mushroom Substrate, Sorghum seedlings.

Introduction

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench) is a plant belonging to the family of grasses (Poaceae). Sorghum is well adapted to tropical and subtropical climates, but the greater part of the area of the crop falls in droughtprone, semi-arid tropical regions of the world. In these harsh environmental conditions Sorghum is predominantly grown for human consumption followed by animal feed and fodder. Sorghum could also play an important role in its alternate uses in brewing industry for the production of ethanol, starch and syrup (Ahlawat et al., 2011).

Agricultural wastes are rich in various types of nutrients and their disposal is different to manage as excess of nutrients in them can cause leaching is left in field, as a compost. Mostly they are disposed by means of incineration which causes pollution (Adebayo & Martinez-Carrera, 2015). Hence there is always a high demand of discovering an agricultural waste management method which is cost effective and contribute less in environment pollution. Mushroom cultivation on agricultural wastes fulfills these requirements (Mandiringana et al., 2005).

Oil palm (Elaeis guineesis) belong to family Palmae and tribe Cocoineae oil is extracted from both the pulp of fruit and kernel. Palm oil is one of the major agricultural commodities in the world and is therefore, one of the largest agricultural industries. Availability of mesocarp fibre is due to the activities of palm oil mills. Hence it will be of interest to utilise mesocarp fibre for the cultivation of mushroom. For this reason there is need to have constant to supply of the substrates which is readily available with low cost price rather than depend on specific types of materials or some seasonal forest supply for cultivation of mushroom.

According to (Sreekala et al., 1997) mesocarp fibre are left as a waste material after oil extraction, creating great environmental problems. Therefore economic utilization of these fibres will be beneficial to the commercial cultivators and the country as a whole. Keeping in view, the present study was focussed to study the stimulatory effect of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) as an organic ameliorant for the growth of Sorghum bicolour in pot studies (Nicolcioiu et al., 2016).

Materials and Methods

Raising of cultivar

Seeds of Sorghum was purchased from local market in Rajapalayam, Virdhunagar District, Tamil Nadu. Healthy and viable seeds of Sorghum was surface sterilized with 0.1% mercuric chloride for one minute and washed with running tap water, followed by rinsing with distilled water. The seeds were soaked in distilled water for overnight and sown in pots containing uniformly mixed garden and sandy soils in 1:1 ratio as control whereas experimental sets viz., Spent Pleurotus Mushroom Substrate + soil spent Pleurotus mushroom substrate cocultured with Isolate bacterial strain 5, Oil palm mesocarp + mushroom + Isolate bacterial strain 6 degraded waste were analysed for their growth of Sorghum seedlings (Kadiri & Mustapha, 2010).

The treatments were T0 = control (only soil), T1 = soil + Spent Pleurotus mushroom substrate, T2 = soil + Spent Pleurotus mushroom substrate with bacterial isolate 5, T3 = soil + Spent Pleurotus mushroom substrate with bacterial isolate 6. Pots were placed in open field, and no other organic or inorganic fertilizer used in growing media. Growth promotion was recorded on 2 week and 4th week of intervals after transfer of plants in terms of plant height in comparison to the control sets as germination percentage (%), root length and shoot length (cm) and height of the see dlings were calculated (Silva, 2012).

Results and Discussion

Effect of SMS on morphological indicators of Sorghum seedlings. As can be seen from (Table 1). Germination of Sorghum seeds. Data regarding the germination of seeds in different treatments of SMS. Among all the treatments was analysed in that highest percentage of germination was observed in T3 Spent Pleurotus Mushroom Substrate+Bacterial isolate I6 (92%) followed by T2 Spent Pleurotus Mushroom Substrate + Bacterial isolate I5 showed 86% of germination respectively. Only spent mushroom substrate T1 mixed with soil in ration of 1:1 has recorded 70% of germination and Oil palm mesocarp waste alone T5 as substrate observed 82% of germination. The lowest percentage was seen in control T0 (only soil) has 56% of sorghum seeds were germinated respectively. The highest production of seedling vigour index (2,143) was observed in T3 Spent Pleurotus Mushroom Substrate + Bacterial isolate I6 and lowest production of 638 seedling vigour index was seen in T0 control as soil alone.

S. No. Treatments Number  of  seeds  sown Germination of Seeds % of Germination Seedling vigour Index
1 T0 = Control (Soil) 50 28 56 638.4
2 T1 = Spent  Pleurotus Mushroom  Substrate 50 35 70 1,190
3 T2 = Spent  Pleurotus Mushroom  Substrate + bacterial Isolate I5 50 43 86 1,737
4 T3 = Spent  Pleurotus Mushroom  Substrate + bacterial Isolate I6 50 46 92 2,143
5 T4 = Oil Palm  Mesocarp Waste  + Soil 50 33 66 1,029
6 T5 = Oil Palm  Mesocarp Waste  alone 50 41 82 839

Table 1.  Effect  of  different  treatments  of  SMS  on  germination of  Sorghum bicolor.

Similar results are in accordance with explained the longer time of germination to adjust the fertility of substrate and improve its properties as a substrate to produce tomato seedlings. Observed that the seedlings produced in organic substrates had greater diameter of the colon indicating a higher quality of the seedlings after transplanting.

Root length and shoot length

Data regarding the effect of spent mushroom substrate on root and shoot length are shown in (Tables 2 and 3). The results obtained from the growth parameters of Sorghum seedlings were studied on T3 Spent Pleurotus Mushroom Substrate + Bacterial isolate I6 recorded the highest growth in both shoot and root length i.e., 6.0 and 8.8 cm on 2nd week of seedlings and 8.5 and 14.8 cm on 4th week of seedlings respectively. This was followed by T 2 Spent Pleurotus Mushroom Substrate + Bacterial isolate I5 in that the shoot length and root length was grown upto 5.9 and 7.5 cm on 2nd week; and 7.6 and 12.6 cm on 4th week as slightly decreased. The growth rate was lowered as in seen T5 OPMW alone i.e shoot and root length recorded 2.3 and 4 cm on 2nd week and 3.4 and 6.8 cm in 4th week of seedlings. Average growth was observed T4 combination of soil + oil palm mesocarp waste. From the present study, spent mushroom substrate exerted a significant influence on root length of Sorghum. These results are similar to those presented by (Sendi et al., 2013) who reported that spent mushroom waste exerted a significant influence on root length of Kailan (Chinese brococoli) at harvest. Addition of suitable organic manure improves the soil physical and chemical properties which encourage better root development, increased nutrient uptake and water holding capacity which leads higher fruit yield and better fruit quality (Suge et al., 2011).

S. No Treatments Shoot Length Root Length Total Height of Seedlings
1 T0 = Control (Soil) 4.7 cm 5.3 cm 8.5 cm
2 T1 = Spent  Pleurotus Mushroom  Substrate 6 cm 5.3 cm 11.3 cm
3 T2 = Spent  Pleurotus Mushroom  Substrate + bacterial Isolate I5 7.5 cm 5.9 cm 13.4 cm
4 T3 = Spent  Pleurotus Mushroom  Substrate + bacterial Isolate I6 8.8 cm 6.0 cm 14.8 cm
5 T4 = Oil Palm  Mesocarp Waste  + Soil 6.4 cm 4.6 cm 11 cm
6 T5 = Oil Palm  Mesocarp Waste  alone 4 cm 2.3 cm 6.3 cm

Table 2. SMS treatments on growth parameters of Sorghum bicolour at 2 weeks interval.

S. No Treatments Shoot Length Root Length Total Height of Seedlings
1 T0 = Control (Soil) 6.9 cm 4.5 cm 11.4 cm
2 T1 = Spent  Pleurotus Mushroom  Substrate 10.2 cm 6.8 cm 17 cm
3 T2 = Spent  Pleurotus Mushroom  Substrate + bacterial Isolate I5 12.6 cm 7.6 cm 20.2 cm
4 T3 = Spent  Pleurotus Mushroom  Substrate + bacterial Isolate I6 14.8 cm 8.5 cm 23.3 cm
5 T4 = Oil Palm  Mesocarp Waste  + Soil 9.7 cm 5.9 cm 15.6 cm
6 T5 = Oil Palm  Mesocarp Waste  alone 6.8 cm 3.4 cm 10.2 cm

Table 3. SMS  treatments  on  growth  parameters of  Sorghum bicolour on 4 weeks  interval.

Fresh and dry weight

Data regarding the fresh and dry weight of Sorghum seedlings were recorded in (Table 4). Both fresh and dry mass of plant differed significantly between treatments. Among them, Sorghum seedlings produced the highest fresh and dry mass was observed in treatment T3 Spent Pleurotus Mushroom Substrate + Bacterial isolate I6 has produced 23.4 g of fresh wt. and 15.8 g of dry wt. respectively and slightly decreasing fresh and dry weight in T2 Spent Pleurotus Mushroom Substrate + Bacterial isolate I5 (21.5 g and 15.3 g) were recorded. Only T1 spent mushroom substrate compare to coculture slight variation as showed 17 g fresh weight and 9.4 g dry weight. The lowest weight of fresh and dry mass was recorded in only T5 oil palm mesocarp waste (10.2 g and 3.9 g).

S. No Treatments Fresh Weight Dry Weight Moisture Content
1 T0 = Control (Soil) 11.7 4.8 6.9
2 T1 = Spent  Pleurotus Mushroom  Substrate 17 9.4 7.6
3 T2 = Spent  Pleurotus Mushroom  Substrate + bacterial Isolate I5 21.2 15.3 5.9
4 T3 = Spent  Pleurotus Mushroom  Substrate + bacterial Isolate I6 23.4 15.8 7.6
5 T4 = Oil Palm  Mesocarp Waste  + Soil 15.6 6.7 8.9
6 T5 = Oil Palm  Mesocarp Waste  alone 10.2 3.9 6.3

Table 4. SMS treatments on weight of  Sorghum bicolour  seedlings.

Our results are in accordance with reported that SMS compost of Pleurotus mixed with depleted garden soil generally enhanced all the variables of growth considered when compared with control. Similarly revealed that composted spent mushroom substrate mixed with loamy soil produced greater vegetative growth and yields of vegetables (Ogbonna et al., 2012). Demonstrated that SMC could be used to improve growth and yield of maize (Jonathan & Adeoyo, 2011).

In this present study, the increase in the fresh mass of Sorghum with an increase in Spent mushroom substrate supplied to improve nutrient availability and soil structure as their by release of nutrients. The increase in fresh weight could be ascribed to the fact that several living organisms are activated in soil with addition of organic matter and these organisms promote the absorption or nutrients from the soil and stimulate plant growth as a result released phyto-hormones in the soil.

The spent mushroom substrate has been analysed and found to be nutritionally rich with respect to its N:P:K contents and high cation exchange capacity. Therefore, it has the ability to replace inorganic Farm yard manure for the purpose of raising horticultural and cereal crops, as feeding material for vermicomposting, for plants disease management, preparation of organic mineral fertilizer and bioremediation of the contaminated soils (Jonathan et al., 2011).

To conclude that the SMS of Pleurotus sajor- caju of an excellent substrate for the production of Sorghum seedlings as it provides the formation of vigorous and quality seedlings. Therefore, the SMS can be recommended for the growth and nutrition of seedling production.

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Citation: Veera lakshmi P & Parani K (2022). Efficiency of spent pleurotus mushroom substrate on growth of sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L.) moench). AJFST. 13: 035.

Copyright: ©2022 International Research Journals This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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