Case Report - International Research Journal of Engineering Science, Technology and Innovation ( 2023) Volume 9, Issue 4
Received: 01-Aug-2023, Manuscript No. irjesti-23-111315; Editor assigned: 04-Aug-2023, Pre QC No. irjesti-23-111315(PQ); Reviewed: 18-Aug-2023, QC No. irjesti-23-111315; Revised: 21-Aug-2023, Manuscript No. irjesti-23-111315(R); Published: 31-Aug-2023, DOI: 10.14303/2315-5663.2023.122
The rapid evolution of electronics has led to increased demand for energy-efficient devices. As portable and wearable electronics become more prevalent, the need for efficient power management circuits has become critical. This research article presents a comprehensive review of recent advancements in power management circuitry within the field of electronics engineering. The article covers various strategies, technologies and design approaches that have emerged to optimize power usage, extend battery life and reduce overall energy consumption in electronic devices.
Power management, Energy efficiency, Electronics engineering, Low-power design, Voltage regulation, Energy harvesting, Switching converters, System-level power management
In the ever-evolving landscape of modern electronics, the pursuit of energy efficiency has emerged as a central imperative. The remarkable proliferation of electronic devices, ranging from portable gadgets to intricate IoT ecosystems, has brought forth an unprecedented demand for sustainable power solutions (Rosenthal A, 2009). This surge in demand has not only underscored the necessity of optimizing energy utilization but has also catalyzed an array of innovative advancements in power management circuits. These circuits, intricate ensembles of components and algorithms, stand as the linchpin in the endeavor to strike a harmonious balance between optimal device performance and judicious energy consumption. As the digital era continues to flourish, the paradigm has shifted from mere connectivity to a holistic integration of devices into the fabric of daily life (Chenna R, 2003). Wearable technologies, smart appliances, autonomous systems, and remote sensors have penetrated domains as diverse as healthcare, manufacturing, transportation, and environmental monitoring (Altschul SF, 1990). This widespread integration, while offering unparalleled convenience and efficiency, has simultaneously heightened the urgency for efficient energy utilization. Consequently, the power management landscape has been thrust into the spotlight, compelling researchers, engineers, and designers to explore novel avenues to enhance energy efficiency across all tiers of electronics (Wall DP, 2011). This paper embarks on a comprehensive exploration of the recent strides in power management circuits within the realm of electronics engineering. By surveying an array of strategies, methodologies, and breakthrough technologies, we aim to shed light on the dynamic landscape that governs energyefficient electronics (Wall DP, 2007). This journey takes us through the annals of dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS), power gating, adaptive power management, and an array of cutting edge techniques designed to orchestrate power delivery with surgical precision. We traverse the intricate domains of energy harvesting, where solar cells, piezoelectric generators, and thermoelectric modules harness ambient energy to sustain devices autonomously. From the vantage point of low-power circuit design, we unravel the intricate dance of transistors operating at sub-threshold and near-threshold levels, along with the integration of emerging paradigms such as tunnel FETs (Altschul SF, 1990). These design principles govern not only the power-hungry behemoths of computation but also the diminutive nodes that populate the Internet of Things. Our journey extends to the realm of switching converters and voltage regulators, where ingenious topologies, embracing multi-level and hybrid designs, herald a new era of efficient power delivery (Abdullah A, 2022).
Power management strategies
This section delves into various power management strategies, including dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS), power gating, clock gating, and adaptive power management. The article discusses how these strategies allow electronic devices to dynamically adjust their power consumption based on workload, leading to improved energy efficiency (Jouini M, 2015).
Energy harvesting techniques
Energy harvesting techniques are methods that involve capturing and converting ambient forms of energy from the surrounding environment into usable electrical energy. These techniques are particularly valuable in scenarios where it is challenging or impractical to rely solely on traditional power sources like batteries or grid electricity (Zhao S, 2013). Energy harvesting technologies provide a means to power small-scale electronic devices, sensors, and low-power systems in a self-sustaining manner. Here are some key energy harvesting techniques and how they work.
Solar energy harvesting: Solar energy harvesting involves capturing sunlight using photovoltaic (solar) cells and converting it into electrical energy (Banu SS, 2018). These cells are typically made of semiconductor materials that generate a voltage when exposed to light. Solar energy harvesting is commonly used in outdoor applications, such as solar-powered calculators, weather stations, and remote sensors. It's a widely adopted technique due to the abundance of sunlight in many regions.
Piezoelectric energy harvesting: Piezoelectric materials generate electrical charges when subjected to mechanical stress or vibrations. This technique is used to convert kinetic energy from vibrations, mechanical deformation, or motion into electrical energy. Piezoelectric energy harvesters are often employed in applications where there is constant movement or vibrations, such as in industrial machinery, vehicles, and wearable devices.
Thermoelectric energy harvesting: Thermoelectric materials produce an electrical voltage when there's a temperature gradient across them. They can convert heat energy directly into electrical energy using the see beck effect. Thermoelectric energy harvesting is useful in situations where there's a temperature difference between the system and its surroundings. This technique is utilized in applications like waste heat recovery from engines, industrial processes, and even body heat in wearable devices.
Low-power circuit design: The design of low-power circuits has become a cornerstone of energy-efficient electronics.
This section highlights innovations in transistor-level design, including sub-threshold operation, near-threshold operation, and the use of emerging technologies such as tunnel FETs. These approaches minimize leakage currents and enable the creation of ultra-low-power electronic systems.
Switching converters and voltage regulators: Efficient voltage regulation is crucial for electronics to maintain stable operation. Recent advancements in switching converter topologies, such as multi-level converters and hybrid converters, are discussed in this section. These topologies offer improved efficiency compared to traditional designs, ensuring optimal power delivery to the electronic components.
System-level power management: At the system level, intelligent power management algorithms are gaining traction. This section explores techniques like dynamic power allocation, task scheduling, and power-aware operating systems. These approaches enable holistic power management, considering both hardware and software aspects to achieve optimal energy utilization.
The article presents real-world case studies of energyefficient electronic systems. Examples include low-power IoT nodes, wearable health monitors, and ultra-low-power sensor nodes for environmental monitoring. These case studies showcase the successful implementation of advanced power management techniques in practical applications.
The article concludes by outlining potential future trends in power management circuitry, such as the integration of AI for dynamic power optimization and the development of energy-autonomous systems. Additionally, it addresses challenges like balancing performance and energy efficiency in increasingly complex electronic systems.
Advancements in power management circuits are at the forefront of enabling energy-efficient electronics. This article underscores the significance of these advancements in meeting the growing demand for high-performance yet sustainable electronic devices. As technology continues to evolve, innovative power management strategies will play a pivotal role in shaping the future of electronics engineering.
The authors would like to express their gratitude to the research community for their contributions in the field of power management circuits and energy-efficient electronics.
Copyright: �2023 International Research Journals This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.