Antibiotics 2019: Antibacterial activity of date palm cake e | 45046
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Antibiotics 2019: Antibacterial activity of date palm cake extracts-Yasir Alhazmi- Jazan University


Yasir Alhazmi


Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest hazards globally that is leading to prolonged hospital stay, inflated medical expenditures and increased morbidity and mortality. Many natural compounds have intrinsic antibacterial activity which needs to be exploited for their clinical use. Given its nutritional value, Date palm is considered as an essential nourishing source in many countries while the Date seed beverage is consumed locally to promote the health. Due to increase in the number of microorganisms resistant to drugs and antibiotics, there is an urgent need of modification of existing antibiotics and antifungal agents, updating of antimicrobial form or formula, and adding new antimicrobial agents for use in the clinics The aim of our research is to assess the active constituents from date palm seed cake for their antimicrobial activity.

KEYWORDS: acetate, product, sensitivity


Antimicrobial resistance poses a huge threat worldwide. Injudicious use of antibiotics has resulted in the loss of numerous antibiotics during the last few decades. Approximately 500,000 persons have developed drug-resistant tuberculosis (TBmalaria, malaria, and human immunodeficiency virus infection in 2016 (World Health Organization, 2018). The natural resistance of microbes occurs over time, through genetic mutations, however; however, the increasing misuse of antimicrobials has significantly contributed to the process. In many places, antibiotics are and injudiciously used humans and animals, and often without supervision (World Health Organization, 2018).

Numerous plants that are consumed in our regular diet can be utilized to avoid and/or treat disease and many health problems safely and effectively. One of the major yields in Southwest Asia and North Africa is the date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera). Date palm natural products are that contains a single seed encased by and meaty. The date natural products are profoundly sustaining and may have various potential medical advantages when used alone or in combination with therapeutic herbs. In the past, dates were considered an integral part of the diet due to their high mineral and vitamin contents. Date seeds contain ingredients with nutritional value. Roasted and ground date seeds are utilized by certain local community as coffee alternates and in the form of coffee-like preparations produced using date seeds in several Arabian shops as in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The date fruit and their derivatives such as seed, and are full of fiber, selenium, carotenoids, ascetic and other antioxidants that may avoid the oxidative damage arising from pathogens.

Rich in phenolic contents, dates are known to have antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal properties, making them a possible source of compounds for the treatment and prevention of infections. Due to increase in the number of microorganisms resistant to drugs and antibiotics, there is an urgent need of modification of existing antibiotics and antifungal agents, updating of antimicrobial form or formula, and adding new antimicrobial agents for use in the clinics.

Aim and Objective:

The primary aim of this study was to evaluate and assess date palm seed cake extract which is used as in the local community for potential antibacterial activity.


Extraction of the date seed powder using high polarity solvents i.e. hexane and ethyl-acetate using cold extraction method. The isolates were later assessed for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using agar-well diffusion method. The ethyl-acetate extract in a 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide exhibited effective inhibition of bacterial growth in comparison with gentamycin. Findings: the gram-positive bacteria showed a significantly higher sensitivity to the date palm seed extract, while the gram-negative bacteria were less susceptible. The MRSA showed the strong susceptibility as indicated by a large zone of growth inhibition of 20 mm diameter as compared to the positive control (gentamycin) followed by E. faecalis.

Bacterial strains

The bacterial strains used in this study included Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilismethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Enterococcus faecalis. All bacterial strains were identified and confirmed previously by College of Applied Medical Sciences Lab in Qassim University.

Preparation of microbial cultures and agar well diffusion method:

Three bores with diameter of 6 mm were cut into the agar medium using a heat sterile Pasteur pipette. The agar plates were then used for bacterial culture by streaking a medical swab soaked in the respective bacterial suspension. One bore was filled with 50 μl of the seed extract, and the other bores were filled with the positive (gentamycin) and negative controls (DMSO 10%). After 1-h diffusion, the bacterial cultures were incubated at 37°C for 24 h. The diameters of the growth inhibition zones were measured in mm. All of the tested organisms were repeated three times on different days.

Statistical analysis:

Microsoft Excel was used for statistical purposes. Data were expressed as mean and standard deviation.


Antimicrobial potential of ethyl acetate extract date palm seed cake is shown in Table 1 and Figures 1–3). It is obvious that ethyl acetate showed significant and differential antibacterial effects.

Table 1. Inhibition zones of bioactive compounds of Phoenix dactylifera L. against various pathogenic bacteria using ethyl acetate extract at 100 mg/ml concentration after 24 h incubation at 37ºC

Bacteria type

Diameter of inhibition zone (mm) (1)

Diameter of inhibition zone (mm) (2)

Diameter of inhibition zone (mm) (3)

Mean (mm)














E. coli












Pr. v




















Depending on the diameter of the inhibition zone, the antibacterial activity has been classified into four categories (antibacterial activity results have been expressed in mm):

• ≤10 mm considered as low activity.

• >10 to 15 mm considered as moderate activity.

• >15 to 20 mm considered as strong activity.

• >20 mm considered as extremely strong.

The most susceptible microbes for the date seed extracts were the gram-positive bacteria, while the gram-negatives showed less susceptibility (Figures 2 and 3).

Figure 2. Ethyl acetate extract inhibition result.

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