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Full Length Research Paper - International Research Journal of Plant Science ( 2021) Volume 12, Issue 1

Studies on ethnomedicinal plant diversity at daund tehsil, Pune, Maharashtra

Samudra S.M1 and Shinde H.P2*
 
1Department of Botany, K.G. Kataria College, Pune, Maharashtra, India
2Department of Botany, K.V. N. Naik Arts Commerce and Science College, Nasik, Maharashtra, India
 
*Corresponding Author:
Shinde H.P, Department of Botany, K.V. N. Naik Arts Commerce and Science College, India, Tel: 9890336756, Email: shindehemant79@gmail.com

, DOI: 10.14303/irjps.2021.002

Abstract

India is rich in biodiversity and considered to be a storehouse of medicinal plants. The diversity of indigenous and endemic medicinal plants has contributed a lot to the practice of herbal/traditional medicines by local tribal communities. It has been observed that valuable information about the diverse ethnomedicinal plantspecieslocated at the particular area is accumulated traditionally at the local herbal healers or medicine men “Vaidu” by whom; this valuable information is hardly shared with others, due to which the vast treasure of ethnomedicinal knowledge is eroding gradually, also triggered by modernization, rapid socioeconomic changes etc. As a part of participatory efforts towards creating awareness about medicinal utilities of plants and need of conservation; a periodic survey was carried out in and around Daund tehsil to record the diversity of ethnomedical plant species along with their medicinal utilities. Total 74 plant species were identified and enlisted for their medicinal values to cure several diseases like gynaecological ailments, asthma, cold, cough, dysentery, jaundice, piles, skin diseases etc. including plant species like Aegle marmelos, Boerhavia diffusa, Caralluma adscendens var. fimbriata, Chrozophora rottlerin, Citrulus colocynthis, Glossocardia bosvallea, Macrotyloma uniflora, Sesamum laciniatum, Vernonia anthelmintica etc. The present work aimed to highlight not only the diversity of ethnomedicinally important plant species but also their potential utilization as resources in a conservation perspective.

Keywords

Ethnomedicinal diversity, Daund.

Introduction

India ranks sixth among 12 mega diversity countries in the world and is treasure for endemic medicinal plants. (Myers et.al. 2000). The entire Western Ghats (Sahyadris) is considered as a major genetic reserve with an enormous biodiversity of ancient lineage. The use of plants with pharmaceutical properties has received increased interest nowadays from both homeopathic and allopathic branches. The diversity of indigenous and endemic medicinal plants has contributed a lot to the practice of herbal/traditional medicines by local tribal communities. The Indian systems of medicine have been a part of the culture & tradition of India down the centuries. The ‘Sushruta Samhita’ attributed to Sushruta in the 6th century BC described over 700 medicinal plants. More than 9000 plant species are found to be used for health care in India under folk and codified Indian medical systems.

Earlier, (Razi 1952; Santapau 1951, 1957; Vartak 1953, 1960) have contributed flora of Poona and neighbouring district including regions like Torna fort, Katraj ghat etc. Similarly; (Chopra et al. 1956, 1958; Mitra, Jain 1991 and Nair, Mohan 1998) have provided a glossary of Indian medicinal plants. (Jain et al. 1973, 1994) published the use of medicinal plants among certain Adivasis in India and gave a list of major medicinal plants of India. Many valuable herbal drugs have been discovered by knowing that particular plant was used by ancient folk healers for the treatment of some kind of ailment (Ekka & Dixit, 2007). The presence of drug residues results in development of drug resistant microorganism that are difficult to treat and the world is looking for safer herbal alternatives (Nisha. 2008). Medicinal plants play an important role in public health, especially in developing countries, where it is believed that the intense utilization of plants with therapeutic action does not lead to intoxication (Mossi et. al. 2009; Jagtap et.al. 2020). Similarly; Indian council of medicinal research has prepared a Database on ethnomedicinal plants of Western Ghats (Kholkunte, 2008). The use of participatory methods in ethnobiological studies has grown overtime and become an important tool in these studies (Sieber 2010). Herbal traditional methods have been developed through many experiences of many generations (Zingare. 2012). Though the geographical area cover of the country represents about 2.4% of the world’s total landmass, it harbours a total of 47,513 plant species (Singh & Dash, 2014; Arisdason & Lakshminarasimhan; 2019). Ethnobotanical explorations and documentation indicate that more than 7000 species have been used for human food at some stage in human history (Grivetti and Ogle 2000). But this important knowledge is slowly diminishing day by day due to invasion of alien cultures. (Lokhande; 2020).

Nearly 18,000 species of flowering plants that account almost 11% of the total plant species in the world. (Singh et.al. 2015). An exploration of known and unknown ethnomedicinal flora with an objective of its effective utilization can be viewed as a promising resource for the welfare of local people and mankind to the large extent. (Wagh et.al. 2018; Shinde et.al. 2018).

Pharmaceutical and herbal industries require information about adequate supply of crude drugs, their proportion, formulations, doses, effectivity etc. which are being fulfilled mostly through the local traditional practitioners. However; this may lead to problems of authenticity of material used, problems of quality of materials, wastage during transport and time gap between collection and medicine preparation.

Also; during the last decade; places like Daund tehsil; located near to megacity like Pune; having an enormous expansion in industries especially pharmaceutical industries. Due to this; there is an increasing pressure on diversity of endemic medicinal plants from these regions. Latest research has shown that over 70% of the medicinal plant collections involve destructive harvesting because of the use of parts like roots, bark, wood, stem and the whole plant in case of herbs. This poses a definite threat to the endemic medicinal plant species as well as to the diversity of medicinal plants studies which has an enormous scope in years to come. The present investigation was attempted so as to collect and document valuable information about diversity of ethnomedicinal plant species used by local people in and around the Daund tehsil; as it was observed that there is very little or no work has been done on diversity of ethnomedicinal plants specifically from Daund tehsil (Figure 1).

plant-science-flower-ethnomedicinal-plant

Figure 1. Floristic diversity of some ethnomedicinal plant species
A. Urena lobata L. moorthy. B. Celmatis triloba Heyne ex Roth. C. Mucuna pruriens L. D.C. D. Echinops echinatus Roxb. E. Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad & Wendl. F. Cassia fistula L. G. Bombax ceiba L. H. Plumbago zeylanica L. I. Cassia auriculata. J. Terminalia catappa L. K. Tridax procumbens L. L. Abelmoschus manihot L. Medik. M. Adhatoda zeylanica Medik. N. Martynia annua L. O. Pergularia daemia (Frossk.) Chiov. P. Rotheca serrata L. Steane & Mabb. Q. Sida cordata (Burm.f.). R. Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.

Methodology

Study Area

Daund tehsil lies in Pune district and situated on the bank of Bhima river. The river Bhima and its tributary rivers Mula-Mutha are dominating drainage pattern in study region. Besides an urban centre; it comprises 102 villages (Figures 2 and 3). The dry mixed deciduous forest pocket covers the board western part of the area. It is famous for rich ethno-floristic diversity along north-eastern side. It has remained inhabited to certain extent by the local inhabitants for certain needs and necessities. The people here utilize medicinal plants to cure human diseases. The present ethno-medico-botanical studies were carried out at the various regions of Daund tehsil with the help of field visits, questionnaire and group discussion during the period from 2019 to 2020.The plant specimen collected from the region were properly processed for herbarium (Jain and Rao, 1976). The herbarium specimens are deposited at Department of Botany, K.G. Kataria College Daund, Pune. The data on ethno-botany has been identified and confirmed with help of regional flora and relevant scientific literature. The information was recorded on questionnaire and in the field note books.

plant-science-flower-location-map

Figure 2. Location map and Google map showing the study area.

plant-science-flower-data-sio

Figure 3. Imagery ©2021 Landsat / Copernicus, Data SIO, NOAA, U.S. Navy, NGA, GEBCO, Map data ©2021 10 km.

Conclusion

The knowledge regarding use of native plant species have diversified ethno-medicinal significances. Unfortunately, most of the traditional ethno-botanical knowledge in India is eroding at faster rate days after days due to losses of the ancient traditions and culture as they are mostly oral. In order to collect, conserve and maintain it, collective efforts are needed from the NGOs, government authorities, ethno-botanists and the pharmaceutical industries. To achieve the target, documentation and computerization of useful medicinal plants with their traditional uses should be initiated at national as well as international level. Moreover; it may provide lead in the development of new drugs as the endemic medicinal plant wealth of the Daund tehsil which is having enormous potential to establish and run herbal drug industry and cultivation of medicinally significant species through various outreach activities or programmes for the benefit of local inhabitants.

Acknowledgement

Authors are thankful to the notified and de-notified rural, tribal and non-tribal groups, traditional healers from area under the study for their immense help and co-operation during the field work.

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