International Research Journals
Reach Us +44 330 818 7254

International Research Journal of Engineering Science, Technology and Innovation

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

Mini Review - International Research Journal of Engineering Science, Technology and Innovation ( 2023) Volume 9, Issue 2

Artificial and biological cognition: What can we learn about mechanisms by utilizing artificial intelligence planning methods to model physical cognition issues.

Peter Duck*
Department of Computer Science, Australia
*Corresponding Author:
Peter Duck, Department of Computer Science, Australia, Email:

Received: 23-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. irjesti-23-95628; Editor assigned: 25-Mar-2023, Pre QC No. irjesti-23-95628 (PQ); Reviewed: 10-Apr-2023, QC No. irjesti-23-95628; Revised: 17-Apr-2023, Manuscript No. irjesti-23-95628 (R); Published: 24-Apr-2023, DOI: 10.14303/2315-5663.2023.97


While we as of now have a decent comprehension of the conduct and neurobiological systems hidden cooperative educational experiences, we see considerably less about the components basic more perplexing types of discernment in creatures. In this review, we present a proposition for a better approach for contemplating creature discernment tests. We explain how a physical cognition task domain can be broken down into its component parts and models built to represent the agent's access to information and the domain's causal events. We then, at that point, execute a straightforward arrangement of models, utilizing the arranging language MAPL inside the MAPSIM recreation climate, and applying it to a riddle tube task recently introduced to orang-utans. We compare the results of the models to those of the experiments with orang-utans, discuss the advantages of this method, and suggest ways it could be improved.


Comparative cognition, Mechanism, Function, Modelling, Planning, Artificial intelligence


However, these tests have also shown that, in many instances, animal cognition researchers lack the appropriate analytical tools to deconstruct those behaviours, compare competences between species or within them, or tentatively assign biological mechanisms (Seed A, 2009). In this study, we propose a novel approach to this issue by utilizing AI techniques as an analytical tool to help researchers comprehend the test domain, plan appropriate experiments, and facilitate quantitative and qualitative analyses of animal behavior (Perfors A, 2011). These capabilities are typically given broad, functional labels like causal reasoning, planning, or theory of mind, each of which describes a collection of related behaviours that may have multiple possible levels of complexity. Additionally, animals' actions during a specific task may transcend the functional labels provided earlier. For instance, if the subject is given the opportunity to select from a variety of strategies prior to initiating action, an experiment that is meant to test physical causal reasoning through the use of tools might also require planning (Chittka L, 2012). Aware of this, scientists attempt to configuration tests so that the mental capacity of interest is disconnected and that the subjects' reactions in the examination are analytic of their level (Tecwyn EC, 2012). Researchers must also ensure that they can exclude the possibility of associative learning by limiting the number of trials, presenting novel tasks, or requiring the subject to abstract general principles from learned examples in order to solve the task because these kinds of capabilities are defined in such a way that they could not be achieved by associative learning alone (though this tends to be a controversial assertion (Fikes RE, 1971).

An overview of the modeling procedure

Although the general concepts and workflow could be implemented in a variety of ways using various modeling techniques, the modeling technique is based on AI planning (Brenner M, 2009). This method is used to model a task that was previously given to orang-utans, Pongo pygmaeus, in which the orang-utan must push a nut through a horizontal tube to an opening while preventing the nut from falling into inaccessible traps. Preconditions and effects are used to represent the actions that an agent can perform (Webb B, 2001). The facts that must be true in the current state before the action can be used are referred to as the preconditions, and the effects are the changes to the state brought about by the action. The Blocks World is a well-known AI problem that can be solved with planning. In this, a block tower is presented to an agent, who must arrange the blocks to construct a new tower. In this world, the activities accessible to the specialist are 'get a block' or 'put down a block'. The state is a list of facts about where each block in a tower stands in relation to the block directly below it. The preconditions of getting a block are that the specialist's hand is vacant and that nothing is stacked on top of the block being referred to, and the impact of putting a block down on top of another block is that the state currently contains an extra truth portraying their relationship (Chater N, 2006). A planner will look for the shortest possible sequence of actions to create a specific tower from a goal state that describes that tower. For planning, there are many different representations and algorithms. We have decided to represent our problems in the MAPL language and use the MAPSIM simulator to create plans and simulate their execution in our work (Courville AC, 2006). Search-based planning can be replaced by Markov decision processes, reinforcement learning, or reactive behavior generation systems. Although these systems generate behavior using a variety of algorithms and assumptions, they all require problems to be formulated as states and actions, much like AI planning. Neural networks and pure behavior-based systems, for example, don't require as much designer-provided structure but can use or learn structure from the task or environment..

The puzzle tube dome modeling

Particularly, the physical parts of the problem that can change whether the tube ends are open or closed and the possible connections between them should be found in the decomposition. To make a space model, reasonable realities ought to be made to address these things (Shanahan M, 2012). For instance, the tube must be divided into actual "cells" and facts must be made to show whether two cells are connected or not. Given these reality portrayals, the following stage is to encode the activities that alter the state. If the subject pushes the nut over a large gap and the nut falls through the gap into the trap below, these actions can define both what the subject can do and what happens as a result of the subject's action. Some planning methods, like MAPL, can also show sensing actions that the subject might use to learn more about the task as it happens. The space displaying is maybe the main move toward the demonstrating system as it unambiguously characterizes the sorts of the things the subject should have to be aware of and do to take care of a specific issue. By separating themselves from the actual situation, the designer must be able to produce appropriate logical representations for this process. This includes discretizing continuous values like the distance a nut can travel between relevant intervals in the tube domain's cells. The best way to accomplish this is not provided by AI planning. It is usually best to abstract as much as possible while still capturing the fundamental structure of the problem when creating artificial system domains. This is because when looking for plans, more abstract domains result in smaller search problems. It isn't evident that this approach is attractive while demonstrating creature conduct, as the reflection interaction might dispose of parts of the issue that are significant for displaying the subject. For instance, the planning agent used in our models has two actions, one of which is "take-nut," as we will discuss later. In our model in light of a legitimate concern for creating a reasonable and straightforward clarification of our methodology this is an extremely basic activity that can be executed when the nut is either in a front oriented trap, or at an open finish of the cylinder. However, there may be a functional distinction between using the action at the two locations for a real orang-utan: one may be easier to achieve physically or may involve a lower risk of the nut rolling to the ground and being taken by a rival. In addition, we do not attempt to model the motor activity required to remove the nut from the trap by grasping it with the digits.


The construction of decision trees to comprehend the complexity of mountain gorillas' hierarchical food-processing behavior and the creation of intricate neurobiological based models of cricket phonotaxis are two examples of previous applications of AI-inspired techniques and models. Bayesian modeling is becoming more and more popular among researchers studying human cognitive development, particularly the ability of children to infer from sparse information when learning languages. Others are even reexamining Pavlov Ian melding utilizing Bayesian models. All of the models that were inspired by AI discussed earlier attempted to comprehend the mechanisms that underlie organismal behavior. However, the motivation for our proposal to employ AI methods as outlined in this study was slightly different. The issue we face in concentrating on discernment in creatures is that we don't yet see an adequate number of about the issues creatures face and how they could settle them to relegate components to specific mental capacities. As a result, rather than relying on models to directly test or suggest candidates for biological mechanisms, our argument is that such methods can be incorporated into a design-based strategy for methodically analyzing and ultimately comprehending the issues that animals face.


  1. Seed A, Emery N, Clayton N (2009). Intelligence in corvids and apes a case of convergent evolution. Ethology.115: 401–420.
  2. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  3. Perfors A, Tenenbaum JB, Griffiths TL, Xu F (2011). A tutorial introduction to Bayesian models of cognitive development. Cognition.120: 302–321.
  4. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  5. Chittka L, Rossiter SJ, Skorupski P, Fernando C (2012). What is comparable in comparative cognition. Phil Trans R Soc B. 367: 2677–2685.
  6. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  7. Tecwyn EC, Thorpe SKS, Chappell J (2012). What cognitive strategies do orang-utans (Pongo pygmaeus) use to solve a trial-unique puzzle-tube task incorporating multiple obstacles. Anim Cogn. 15: 121–133.
  8. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  9. Fikes RE, Nilsson NJ (1971). STRIPS: a new approach to the application of theorem proving to problem solving. Artif Intell. 2: 189–208.
  10. Google Scholar, Crossref

  11. Brenner M, Nebel B (2009). Continual planning and acting in dynamic multiagent environments. Auton Agents Multi-Agent Syst.19:  297–331.
  12. Google Scholar, Crossref

  13. Webb B (2001). Can robots make good models of biological behaviour. Behav Brain Sci. 24: 1033–1050.
  14. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  15. Chater N, Tenenbaum JB, Yuille A (2006). Probabilistic models of cognition conceptual foundations. Trends Cogn Sci. 10: 287–291.
  16. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  17. Courville AC, Daw ND, Touretzky DS (2006). Bayesian theories of conditioning in a changing world. Trends Cogn Sci. 10: 294–300.
  18. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  19. Shanahan M (2012). The brain's connective core and its role in animal cognition. Phil Trans R Soc B. 367: 2704–2714.
  20. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

Copyright: ©2023 International Research Journals This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.