International Research Journals

International Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Soil Science

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

Case Report - International Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Soil Science ( 2022) Volume 11, Issue 5

Accessibility to Fertilised Soils and Manure Material as Potential Legionella Pneumophilia Sources

Rajeev Soni*
Department of Soil Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab 141004, India
*Corresponding Author:
Rajeev Soni, Department of Soil Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab 141004, India, Email:

Received: 02-Sep-2022, Manuscript No. IRJAS-22-74917; Editor assigned: 05-Sep-2022, Pre QC No. IRJAS-22-74917; Reviewed: 19-Sep-2022, QC No. IRJAS-22-74917; Revised: 23-Sep-2022, Manuscript No. IRJAS-22-74917; Published: 30-Sep-2022, DOI: 10.14303/2251-0044.2022.20


Legionnaires' infection is a type of abnormal local area gained pneumonia as a rule brought about by Legionella pneumophilia, which is normally connected with openness to tower cooling or water frameworks. In Australia, Legionnaires' illness is all the more regularly brought about by Legionella longbaechae, which is commonly connected with openness to soil or fertilizer materials, and the presence of Legionella pneumophilia is less perceived. We report an inconsistent instance of Legionnaires' illness brought about by Legionella pneumophilia serogroup 1 that was contracted following openness to preparing blend and dirt.


Community acquired pneumonia, Atypical pneumonia, Legionnaires' disease, Legionella


Legionnaires' sickness is an unprecedented reason for local area obtained pneumonia and it is related with high bleakness and mortality. Pneumonia following openness to preparing blend is ordinarily connected with Legionella longbaechae. Transmission of Legionella pneumophilia is generally connected with openness to water sources Basak et al., (2015), yet seldom connected with soil or preparing blend openness. Ongoing writing had announced types of L. pneumophilia being separated and sent from preparing blend and soil to people causing pneumonia.


This case features the chance of securing Legionnaires' sickness from openness to gardening soils and looks to make clinicians aware of evaluate for fertilizer and soil openness while overseeing patients with local area obtained pneumonia. A 84-year-old man of his word gave a 3-day history of fevers, non-useful hack, gentle cerebral pain Basak et al., (2021) and wooziness. His past clinical history included hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation and hearing weakness. He was residing at home in a semi-country area of New South Ridges with his accomplice and was completely free in his exercises of day to day residing. He was an ex-smoker having stopped smoking in his thirties. He had filled in as a handyman Allard et al., (2006) with minor asbestos openness. On show, he was febrile to 39.6° and his heartbeat oximetry was 94% on room air with a respiratory pace of 18. Actual assessment uncovered inspiratory pops in the left upper zone. He was cardiovascularly stable.

Ten days preceding creating side effects, the patient was working in his open air terrace garden scooping around 500 kg of dirt and home manure Alli et al., (2000). The patient was additionally presented to two 25 kg packs of business preparing blend that were put away in his nursery shed. During the time spent getting ready and working with soil and fertilizer materials, the patient didn't rehearse severe contamination control measures, including wearing of veils, continuous handwashing and opening packs of business preparing Amer AO and Swanson MS (2005) blend in all around ventilated regions. The patient likewise had no new debilitated contacts, no abroad travel, no contact with cooling units or cooling towers and no openness to birds.


His white platelet count was 14.6 × 109/L and his C-receptive protein level was 210 mg/L. He additionally experienced intense on persistent kidney injury with a creatinine level of 131 micromol/L. His liver capability tests were average. A chest radiograph showed combination in the left upper curve. His underlying determination was lobar local area obtained pneumonia Bachman MA and Swanson MS (2004), and according to neighborhood antimicrobial rules he was observationally treated with intravenous benzylpenicillin and oral doxycycline. The patient tried positive for L. pneumophilia 1 antigen in his pee test with urinary antigen chemical immunoassay, and his anti-infection routine was changed to double treatment with azithromycin 500mg once day to day and ciprofloxacin 500mg two times everyday for 48 hours, trailed by monotherapy with azithromycin 500mg once day to day.

Inspecting and investigation of thought sullied home soil was not doable as this was a solitary disengaged case and no home soil was accessible for examining. The patient denied having any openness to lakes, wellsprings and different wellsprings of stale water at home. A notice was made to the neighborhood general wellbeing unit Banerji et al., (2005) and in light of the fact that this was a disengaged case, no further examination or contact following was important as there could have been no different flare-ups of Legionnaires' sickness at the hour of show. Intensive audit of the clinical show emphatically recommends that there could have been no different sources that the patient might have obtained the contamination aside Berk et al., (1998) from his new openness to home soil and preparing blend.


Legionella is a facultative intracellular parasite that attacks and recreates in ecological amoebae. It is a human microorganism and desire into aviation route and lung tissues causes Legionnaires' infection. L. pneumophilia was first distinguished following a flare-up of pneumonia among participants at an American army show in Philadelphia in 1976. Side effects regularly emerge 2-10 days after openness, yet can go from 1 to 19 days, with a middle of 6-7 days post-openness. Immunosuppressed Blander et al., (1989) people might require 10 days or longer to foster side effects. The important supply for this microorganism is water; consequently, polluted sources commonly incorporate cooling towers, humidifiers, wellsprings and plumbing networks.

Identification of various kinds of L pneumophilia in soil or fertilizer materials has been accounted for in different areas of the planet (Table 1). The dirt tainting rate in UK fertilizer is 62.5%, which is essentially higher than the remainder of Europe including Greece (27.3%) and Switzerland (45.7%). Casati and his partners revealed that L. pneumophilia represented 90% of all announced instances of soil defilement in Europe, which is fundamentally higher that gardening soil tests in Switzerland, Japan and Australia. This might connect with contrasts in the analytic methods utilized.

Pathology Test 14-12-2018 17-12-2018 21-12-2018 Reference Range
White Cell Count 14.6 12.7 10.2 4–11 × 109/L
Neutrophil Count 12.3 10.9 7.8 2–8 x 109/L
C Reactive Protein 210 332 86 <5.0mg/L
Creatinine 131 212 128 60 - 110 μmol/L
Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate 131 24 44 >60 mL/min/1.73 m2
Haemoglobin 119     130–180 g/L
Sodium 132 135 138 135–145 mmol/L
Potassium 4.2   3.9 3.5–5.2 mmol/L

Table 1. Identification of various kinds of L pneumophilia in soil.

Serological testing has restricted esteem in everyday clinical practice. As seroconversion might require up to half a month, rehash improving serology 3 a month after beginning of side effects is required, and a four-overlay expansion in immunizer titer is expected to lay out a finding, consequently presenting critical constraints on clinical navigation. Serological testing is likewise incapable to recognize all types of legionella and cross-receptive neutralizer development from non-Legionella microscopic organisms Blander SJ and Horwitz MA (1993) makes it challenging to decide the meaning of a positive serology. Patients getting 7-14 days of different anti-toxins for legionella pneumonia have been related with fix paces of 90-100 percent, including azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin and levofloxacin. Two examinations have proposed that a short course of 3-5 days of oral azithromycin brought about 100 percent fix rates. Be that as it may, for our patient, such brief span of anti-toxin treatment isn't inclined toward as he experienced serious pneumonia with slow clinical reaction to anti-infection therapy on a foundation of numerous persistent co-morbidities.


In patients giving local area obtained pneumonia, ongoing openness to soil, fertilizer and preparing blend materials ought to be affirmed regardless of whether pneumonia is expected L. pneumophilia. Clinicians ought to likewise be careful that finding by means of serological testing for antibodies against legionella species is neither a dependable or opportune mark of illness, as fundamental clinical co- morbidities and immunosuppression might defer or stifle a suitable expansion in immunizer titers bringing about bogus adverse outcomes. Subsequently, depending on microbiological culture and PCR techniques is basic for a conclusive and ideal finding of Legionnaires' illness.


The authors are grateful to the Punjab Agricultural University, for providing the resources to do the research on agricultural science.


The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.


  1. Basak N,Datta A,Mandal A,Ghoshal SK,Mandal B (2015). Improving quality and resilience of soils under rice-based cropping systems. Indian Farm.64: 10-13.
  2. Indexed at, Google Scholar , Crossref

  3. Basak N,Mandal B,Datta A,Kundu MC,Rai AK,et al (2021).Stock and stability of organic carbon in soils under major agro-ecological zones and cropping systems of sub-tropical India. Agric Ecosyst Environ.312: 107317.
  4. Indexed at, Google Scholar , Crossref

  5. Allard KA, Viswanathan VK, Cianciotto NP (2006). lbtA and lbtB are required for production of theLegionella pneumophilasiderophore legiobactin.J Bacteriol.188: 1351-1363.
  6. Indexed at, Google Scholar , Crossref

  7. Alli OA, Gao LY, Pedersen LL, Zink S, Radulic M, et al (2000). Temporal pore formation-mediated egress from macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells byLegionella pneumophila.Infect Immun.68: 6431-6440.
  8. Indexed at, Google Scholar , Crossref

  9. Amer AO, Swanson MS(2005). Autophagy is an immediate macrophage response toLegionella pneumophila.Cell Microbiol.7: 765-778.
  10. Indexed at, Google Scholar , Crossref

  11.  Bachman MA, Swanson MS(2004). The LetE protein enhances expression of multiple LetA/LetS-dependent transmission traits byLegionella pneumophila.Infect Immun.72: 3284-3293.
  12. Indexed at, Google Scholar , Crossref

  13. Banerji S, Bewersdorff M, Hermes B, Cianciotto NP, Flieger A(2005). Characterization of the major secreted zinc metalloprotease-dependent glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase, PlaC, ofLegionella pneumophila.Infect Immun.73: 2899-2909.
  14. Indexed at, Google Scholar , Crossref

  15. Berk SG, Ting RS, Turner GW, Ashburn RJ(1998). Production of respirable vesicles containing liveLegionella pneumophilacells by twoAcanthamoebaspp.Appl Environ Microbiol.64: 279-286.
  16. Indexed at, Google Scholar , Crossref

  17. Blander SJ, Breiman RF, Horwitz MA (1989). A live avirulent mutantLegionella pneumophilavaccine induces protective immunity against lethal aerosol challenge.J Clin Invest.83: 810-815.
  18. Indexed at, Google Scholar , Crossref

  19. Blander SJ, Horwitz MA (1993). Major cytoplasmic membrane protein ofLegionella pneumophila, a genus common antigen and member of the hsp 60 family of heat shock proteins, induces protective immunity in a guinea pig model of Legionnaires' disease.J Clin Invest.91: 717-723.
  20. Indexed at, Google Scholar , Crossref