In last decade, the total world fishery production decreased slightly and the human consumption for aquatic product increased. The reduction in capture fisheries was partly compensated for the fast growth of aquaculture industry. The need for enhanced disease resistance, feed efficiency, and growth performance of cultured organisms is substantial for various sectors of this industry. If growth performance and feed efficiency are increased in commercial aquaculture, the costs productions are likely to be reduced. Also if more aquatic organisms are able to resist diseases and survive the subsequent cost of medication and overall production costs would be reduced. Hormones, antibiotics, ionopheres and some salts compounds have been used at some extent to prevent disease and as growth promoters; however, their inadequate application can produce adverse disorders, such as hormone imbalance, poisoning and predisposition to disease development. In the search of new options, several studies have been carried out to test new compounds, from which the aquaculture industry has developed the concept of “functional additives”. Among these additives, the additions of microorganisms to diets, named probiotics, has shown to improve the energy expenditure derived from other sources such as carbohydrates and increase the incorporations of protein for growth; increase the immunity and disease resistance of host organism. The use of probiotics in aquaculture just begum, since that gastrointestinal microbiota of aquatic organisms has been poorly characterized; and their effects not be study extensive. This review summarizes and evaluates current knowledge of use and the action of probiotic in fish culture; and the potential for further application in aquaculture production.
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