The results of retrospective large scale registry and cohort studies and small case series, substantiate the common perception that it is risky to operate on a patient with liver disease The preexisting physiological derangements of liver disease may be exacerbated by the trauma of surgery and its complications, which contributes strongly to the aforementioned surgical risks, especially, but not exclusively in cirrhotics. Perturbations in liver blood flow and oxygenation may be exaggerated by anesthesia, surgery itself, blood loss, and other operative complications. Cirrhotics are especially susceptible to acute and chronic kidney injury. Malnutrition is common in cirrhosis and compromises wound healing and recovery from surgery. In cirrhosis, elimination of infection is impaired and its systemic effects are deleterious.
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