Cantaloupes grown in sandy soil are rich in trace elements, especially selenium, so they are also known as selenium-rich sandy cantaloupe. Declining, adversely affecting ecosystems and ultimately resulting in lower quality cantaloupe. Introducing different cultures into the culture pattern can alleviate the problems caused by continuous pruning. Field trials were conducted to investigate the effects of different cropping patterns on soil microbial communities and soil properties using standard techniques. The results showed that his 14,905 operational taxonomic units of bacteria and 2,150 fungi were conserved and assigned to his eight bacterial strains and five fungal strains, respectively. The soil bacterial community mainly contained Proteobacteria, Planktomyces, Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria, while the soil fungal community was dominated by Ascomycota’s, Chytridiomycota and Basidiomycota. Different cultivation patterns had significant effects on the Chao and ACE indices of fungal communities in soil. The 6-year watermelon and 1-year wheat rotations had the highest abundance indices of any rotation. Different cultivation patterns had a significant impact on soil properties such as: B. Organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (TN), total potassium (TK), available phosphorus (AP), available K, nitrogen (NN), and pH. Soil OM, TN, NN and pH values were significantly higher in 6-year watermelon cultivation and 1-year wheat cultivation than in the other three cultivation patterns. In addition, soil TK and AP values were significantly higher in watermelon continuous cropping than in the other three cropping patterns. Redundancy analyzes revealed many complex relationships between soil properties and soil bacterial or fungal communities. The use of different cropping patterns plays an important role in effectively modulating soil microbial diversity and characteristics.
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