A glioma is a tumor that develops when glial cells proliferate uncontrollably. Normally, these cells nourish neurons and aid in the operation of your central nervous system. Gliomas are most commonly found in the brain, although they can also develop in the spinal cord. Gliomas are malignant (cancerous), however some may develop slowly. Adult gliomas are the most prevalent kind of primary brain tumor. Despite being relatively infrequent, they cause considerable morbidity and mortality. High-grade gliomas, often known as glioblastomas, are aggressive tumors with a dismal prognosis (Madhumathi et al., 2020). It is now more widely understood that the central nervous system contains an innate immune system. There has been no significant advancement in glioma treatment during the previous decade. The tactics that cancer cells attempt to avoid detection by the immune system help explain the lack of effective therapy for gliomas. However, immunotherapy, which includes blocking immune checkpoint inhibitors, has increased patient survival in several cancer types (Hend et al., 2014).
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