Shoaibe Hossain Talukder Shefat
Aquaculture is the fastest growing animal food producing agricultural sector in the world which has been constrained by several factors. Infectious disease is a key limitations to the sustainable development of aquaculture sector. This paper reviewed the application and efficiency of probiotic microorganisms in aquaculture to prevent infectious diseases and their effects on fish immunology. Information was collected from different secondary sources like journals, reports, articles and electronic media and arranged chronologically. The study reveals that, currently, many probiotic products extracted from different species of bacteria including Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp., Carnobacterium sp., Enterococcus sp. and a yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are commercially available for use in aquaculture. Probiotics have gained popularity in aquaculture as an alternative to the antibiotic in the prevention of infectious diseases of fish because probiotics are eco-friendly. This review also shows that, probiotics have significant effect on growth rate, feed utilization capacity and the immune performance of finfish, shrimp, prawns and crabs in aquaculture. Probiotics are able to interfere with colonization of harmful pathogens and to improve the water quality through decomposition of uneaten food materials, nitrate and other organic materials.
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