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International Research Journal of Microbiology

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Prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in milk sold in Accra

Abstract

Mahami T*, Odonkor S, Yaro M, Adu-Gyamfi A

Antimicrobial resistance is said to currently be the greatest challenge to the effective treatment of infections globally. This study evaluated the risks of antimicrobial resistant microbes associated with 8 types of branded and unbranded milk sold in Accra, Ghana. The study revealed that 6 categories of milk sampled were all contaminated whiles 2 categories were not. Common isolates identified were E.coli, Klebsiella spp , Enterobacter spp, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella tyhpi, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococccus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Antibiotic susceptibility tests indicated that all (100%) isolates were multi-resistant to Ampicillin, Tetracycline, Chloramphenicol, Gentamycin, Cotrimoxazole, Ceturoxime and cefotaxime. Ceftriaxime was the most effective antimicrobial but even then, 90.57% of isolates were resistant to it. Antimicrobial resistant isolates were found in all types of milk sampled. Unpasteurized locally produced cow milk accounted for the highest (26.42%) of resistant microbes and imported skimmed milk the least (3.77%). The others were locally-produced pasteurized cow milk (20.75%), imported whole milk (11.32%), soya milk (22.64%) and powdered milk (15.09%). Even though the risk level varied from different types of milk, it cut across almost all types of milk. The study demonstrated that milk sold in Accra is a potential hazard of pathogenic food borne bacteria as well as antimicrobial resistant bacteria that may have public health implications. There is the need for some additional food safety measures to be applied before the consumption of milk.

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