International Research Journal of Biotechnology

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Pollution of aquatic ecosystems by heavy metals at Ganvié’s lacustrine city (Benin)

Abstract

Hounkpatin A.S, Edorh A.P, Sèzonlin M, Guédénon P, Elégbédé B, Boni G, Dougnon V, Montcho S, Kéké E, Boko M.

The lake city of Ganvié is facing environmental problems. Indeed, the deposition of all kinds of domestic and solid wastes, the fraudulent traffic of leaded gasoline through pirogues, the runoff waters from Cotonou city, and the effluents from Ouémé River are source of heavy metals contamination of the ecosystem. These toxic metals constitute a risk for this aquatic ecosystem through the chronic effects they are known to cause. The aim of this study is to assess the level of contamination of this ecosystem by heavy metals (lead and cadmium). Therefore, samples of water, sediment, and fish were collected and mineralized before their heavy metals (lead, cadmium) content were analysed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Thermo Orion assisted by Solar S2 software) at the laboratory of Management, Valorisation and Treatment of wastes, Lomé University (Togo). The results revealed high concentrations in lead and cadmium above the safety norms in most of the samples. The different values expressed in mg/kg (fish, sediments) or mg/L for water) are: 0.56 and 0.03 (water), 54.04 and 0.74 (sediment), 26.85 and 2.01 (fish) for lead and cadmium, respectively. These results have shown the pollution of Ganvié aquatic ecosystem by lead and cadmium.

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