Nitrogen (N) is the most limiting nutrient for agricultural production, but its overuse is associated with environmental pollution, rising levels of greenhouse gases, and multiple impacts on human and animal health. These effects are strongly influenced by biochemical transformations such as volatilization, leaching, runoff, denitrification and N loss. Half of the nitrogen fertilizer produced worldwide is used to grow three major crops: rice, wheat and maize, with current nitrogen recovery rates of around 30-50%. Continued increases in N fertilizer use, despite declining crop yields, may further increase the environmental and health impacts of residual N. To counteract these effects, NUE efficiency (NUE) is improved through the introduction of efficient agricultural practices, and modern breeding and biotechnology tools to develop N-efficient cultivars require immediate attention is required. Using conventional marker-assisted selection methods to map quantitative trait loci and their introgression into elite germplasm, NUE leads to the creation of superior cultivars. In addition, gene-editing techniques offer the opportunity to develop high-yielding cultivars with enhanced N utilization capacity. Some of the most reliable and least expensive methods include agricultural practices such as specific nitrogen management, fertilizers with improved use efficiency, resource conservation practices, precision farming, and Nano fertilizers, allowing farmers helps reduce the environmental loss of nitrogen. , which improves NUE. In our review, recent developments in regional and scientific soil and crop management techniques, and conventional and modern breeding techniques, to increase NUE that help reduce the associated nitrogen load and health impacts.
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