Oriaifo S.E, Nicholas Oriaifo, Okogbenin E.O, Omogbai E. K. I
Emerging evidence shows that there is a convergence of mechanisms amongst the calorie-restriction-mimetic drugs metformin, artesunate and the cannabinoid CB2 receptor activators such as cannabidiol in reducing the burden of cardiometabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, and neuropsychiatric diseases, such as epilepsy. Mechanistically, their pharmacological actions appear to converge on endothelial nitric oxide signalling through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-I alpha to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha which upregulates mitochondrial biogenesis and has neuroprotective effects. Down-regulation of mitochondrial function which is a feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus may be crucial in pathogenesis of cardiometabolic and neuropsychiatric disorders. Evidence shows that chronic metformin, artesunateand cannabis administrations have overlapping or similar effects in preventing and attenuating some parameters of the metabolic or insulin resistance syndrome in a Nigerian population and in inhibiting development and progression of seizures. They thus deserve further attention as agents which may help shed more light on the links between cardiometabolic and neuropsychiatric illnesses.
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