Diabetes and Metabolism: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus | 95099
International Research Journals

Diabetes and Metabolism: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus


Panayides Andreas*

One of the most prevalent metabolic disorders, Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM), is brought on by a combination of two primary factors: the inability of insulin-sensitive tissues to respond appropriately to insulin and defective insulin secretion by pancreatic cells. The molecular mechanisms involved in insulin synthesis, release, and detection are tightly regulated because insulin release and activity are necessary for glucose homeostasis. A metabolic imbalance that is the cause of the disease can result from flaws in any of the mechanisms involved in these processes. The key features of type 2 diabetes and the molecular mechanisms and pathways that are thought to play a role in insulin metabolism and lead to insulin resistance and T2DM are the subject of this review. In order to accomplish this, we present a summary of the data that has been collected thus far, with a particular emphasis on insulin synthesis, insulin release, insulin sensing, and the subsequent effects on distinct insulin-sensitive organs. The pathological conditions that exacerbate T2DM are also discussed, including metabolic memory, gut dysbiosis, and nutritional factors. We also discuss some of the molecular mechanisms that link T2DM and Insulin Resistance (IR), as well as cardiovascular risk, which is one of the most significant T2DM complications. This is because T2DM is linked to the acceleration of the development of atherosclerosis.

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