Determination of calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, ure | 16888
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Determination of calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, urea and creatinine in high prevalence rickets area of Northern Nigeria


Bakare-Odunola Moji Taibat, OkpeI Inuwa, Garba Magaji and Odunola Rasheed Adekeye

Nutritional rickets remain a problem in developing countries despite a decline in the prevalence of the condition in developed countries. Due to the high Prevalence of rickets among infants and young children in Gonin-Gora, Jankasa and Kaso Northern Nigeria; this study aimed to explore the relationship between some biochemical parameters and the development of rickets in children living in these communities. Serum levels of calcium sodium, potassium, phosphorus, urea and creatinine were estimated as an investigation into the scourge of Rickets. Randox diagnostic kit was used for the determination of serum calcium and urea. Agappe diagnostic kit was used to determine inorganic phosphorus and creatinine while serum sodium and potassium levels were determined using flame photometric method. The results obtained showed lowered levels of serum calcium with mean values of 2.29± 0.01 S.E.M., 2.34+ 0.01 S.E.M and 2.24 ± 0.01 S.E.M for rickets affected children in Gonin Gora, Jankasa and Kaso respectively compared with the 2.25-2.75 mmol/l normal limit. Phosphorous levels were toward the upper limit with mean values of 1.48 ± 0.02 S.E.M and 1.68 ± 0.02 S.E.M for the children in Goningora and Jankasa respectively; compared with the normal limit of 0.8-1.9 mmol/l. Also, the mean serum calcium for rickets affected children from Kaso community (2.19 ± 0.03S.E.M) was below the normal range value of (2.25-2.75mmol/dL). Rickets among rural children has been reported to be attributed to low serum calcium levels. The low serum levels of calcium and high serum phosphorus levels or the defect in the metabolism of these minerals could be the causes of the disease in these settlements. The comparison of the mean biochemical parameters for Gonin-Gora, Jankasa and Kaso showed significant lowered level of calcium in Kaso compared with the other two communities, which could be the reason why more rickets children were found in Kaso. In conclusion, the concentrations of serum calcium for rickets children were lowered while the concentrations of serum phosphorus were higher which can be attributed to rickets disorder among the children.

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