Cell culture technology has advanced dramatically over the years, revolutionising several disciplines of research and medicine. Controlled cell growth outside of their native environment allows researchers to examine cellular behaviour, disease processes, and therapeutic approaches. Cell culture has progressed from humble beginnings in the late nineteenth century to a sophisticated technique with several applications. This article examines the historical development of cell culture, looks into various cell culture techniques, and emphasises major developments that have influenced its landscape. These advancements, ranging from serum-free medium to organon- a-chip systems, have increased the field of cell culture applications in drug discovery, disease modelling, cancer research, and regenerative medicine. The field's problems are also explored, including as preserving cells phenotypic stability and accurately simulating complicated microenvironments. In the future, the combination of cell culture with genomics, proteomics, and artificial intelligence will provide new insights into cellular behaviour and disease causes. Cell culture's importance in scientific discovery and medical progress is set to grow as technology advances, propelling us towards more personalised and effective approaches to understanding and treating complicated diseases.
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