Polyurethane foam matrixes were filled with the antibacterial substances 2.4.4.′′-tricloro-2′′ hydroxydiphenyl ether (triclosan), 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (isothiazolone), and bis(2-pyridylthio)zinc 1,1′-dioxide (zinc pyrithione). Each biocide component was utilised in concentrations of 0.20 weight percent, 0.50 weight percent, and 1.00 weight percent, and the ability to reduce infection for several species of bacteria was assessed (Barns et al., 2007). The colony formation units (CFU) as a function of time were examined during the microbiological testing with polyurethane foams utilising the pour plate technique and agar diffusion tests. Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleraesuis, and Staphylococcus aureus were employed in preliminary experiments. According to tests conducted in vitro, zinc pyrithione-containing polyurethane foam performed the best. In order to determine whether the usage of zinc pyrithione in polyurethane is harmful to human users, genotoxicity studies were carried out. In order to confirm the antibacterial qualities of polyurethane foam mattresses, microbiological tests were also run on the surfaces of those mattresses. The zinc pyrithione's efficiency as an antibacterial was proved by the large drop in the number of microorganisms found in the foam, and the results of the genotoxicity tests showed that there were no side effects for the users (Suriya et al., 2016).
In this work, brand-new polyurethane (BPU) foam with boric acid was created, and its various physical and biological characteristics were examined. Analytical (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry), morphological (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro-computed tomography), thermal characteristics (thermo gravimetric analysis, differential stoichiometry), and mechanical and physical properties (apparent density, contact angle), among others, were used to (Kumar et al., 2017). The PU foam's thermal and mechanical properties were improved by the inclusion of BA particles because BA's hydrogen bonds with PU reinforced the polymeric structure. Mechanical evaluations and contact angle measurements showed that, compared to PU foam, BPU foam had better mechanical characteristics (94.0 kPa) and greater hydrophobicity values (108.52). (52.9 kPa and 37.35, respectively). Micro-CT images supported SEM photos in which PU foam has an open cell structure and BPU foam has a closed cell structure, according to microscopy analysis. The findings of the antibacterial activity tests show that adding BA to the PU structure considerably enhanced the PU foam's antibacterial capabilities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. According to this study, adding BA to the PU foam's structure boosted its antibacterial qualities while also enhancing its physical, mechanical, and thermal characteristics. As a result, BA inclusion should be considered a viable option for enhancing the characteristics of PU foams (Ventura et al., 2007).
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