Essien, Grace Emmanuel and *Effiong, Grace Sylvester
Garcinia kola seed, used in traditional medicine is known to have effects on reproduction. The study was designed to ascertain the phytochemical constitiuents and toxicity level of Garcinia kola seed, the progestational, anti-progestational and post-coital effects of methanolic extract of Garcinia kola seed in rats. Phytochemical screening and acute toxicity study were done using standard methods, progestational and antiprogestational activities were evaluated by traumatization method while laparectomy was used to determine the number of implantation sites in the uteri. The extract was found to contain tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides and the mean lethal dose was calculated to be 1000 mg/kg. The extract exhibited anti-progestational effect in all rats treated with it. The extract also inhibited ovulation in all animals treated with 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg of the extract however; there was positive deciduoma formation in 67% of rats pretreated with 200mg/kg extract in the presence of progesterone. The extract significantly impaired implantation, caused resorption of implantation sites and also delayed delivery for 4-5 days. This study reveals that Garcinia kola seed possesses anti-ovulatory, anti-progestational and anti-implantation effects thus, corroborating the rationale behind the traditional use of Garcinia kola seed as contraceptive.
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