Crop improvement is a vital aspect of agricultural science aimed at enhancing crop yield, quality, and resilience to various biotic and abiotic stresses. Over the years, significant progress has been made in the field of crop improvement through conventional breeding techniques and the integration of modern biotechnological tools. This review article provides an in-depth analysis of recent advancements in crop improvement strategies, including genetic engineering, marker-assisted selection, genomic selection, and other innovative approaches. It also highlights the challenges and prospects for further improvement in the context of global food security and sustainability.
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