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International Research Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology

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Review Article - International Research Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology ( 2023) Volume 11, Issue 2

A Review on the pharmacokinetics action of benzodiazepine

Jeremy Sprague*
Department of pharmacy, Bowling Green State University, USA
*Corresponding Author:
Jeremy Sprague, Department of pharmacy, Bowling Green State University, USA, Email:

Received: 01-Apr-2023, Manuscript No. IRJPP-23-96312; Editor assigned: 03-Apr-2023, Pre QC No. IRJPP-23-96312(PQ); Reviewed: 17-Apr-2023, QC No. IRJPP-23-96312; Revised: 21-Apr-2023, Manuscript No. IRJPP-23-96312(R); Published: 29-Apr-2023, DOI: 10.14303/2251-0176.2023.68


Designer benzodiazepines, including flualprazolam and flubromazolam, are clandestinely delivered to circumvent federal controls. Although flualprazolam and flubromazolam are fundamentally comparative to alprazolam, they do not have an endorsed medical sign. Flualprazolam differs from alprazolam by the expansion of a single fluorine particle. While, flubromazolam varies by the addition of a single fluorine particle and substitution of a bromine for a chlorine molecule. The pharmacokinetics of these designer compounds has not been extensively evaluated. Within the show consider, we evaluated flualprazolam and flubromazolam in a rat show and compared the pharmacokinetics of both compounds to alprazolam. Twelve male, Sprague-Dawley rats were given a 2 mg/kg subcutaneous dose of alprazolam, flualprazolam and flubromazolam and plasma pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed. Both compounds shown significant two-fold increments in volume of dissemination and clearance. The discoveries of this study show that fluorination of the alprazolam pharmacophore increments pharmacokinetic boundaries including half-life and volume of appropriation. Flualprazolam and flubromazolam's rise in these parameters increases the body's overall exposure and increases the risk of greater toxicity than alprazolam.


Alprazolam, Flualprazolam, Flubromazolam


Fashioner benzodiazepines (DBZDs) are important for a new and arising class of engineered drugs alluded to as original psychoactive substances (NPS). DBZDs contain a similar 5-aryl-1, 4-benzodiazepine pharmacophore as regularly endorsed benzodiazepines (for example alprazolam). However, DBZDs lack an approved therapeutic medical indication and have not been thoroughly evaluated in terms of pharmacodynamics (PD) or pharmacokinetics (PK). People who consume these products are typically unaware of the presence of the DBZD and have an increased risk of toxicity due to the fact that DBZDs are frequently sold as counterfeit prescription tablets. The 5-aryl-1, 4-benzodiazepine pharmacophore is secretly synthesized into DBZDs by either adding or replacing a functional group (Ying JZ et al., 1987). When compared to conventional benzodiazepines, it has been reported that these functional group modifications to the core structure that make up a DBZD enhance the sedative effects. Due to its small molecular size, fluorine is frequently substituted for hydrogen in illicit designer drugs. However, fluorine is more electronegative than hydrogen, which may account for some of the changes in a compound's chemical properties. For instance, the van der Waals contact distance of two thrombin inhibitors that differ by a single fluorine substitution changed, resulting in a five-fold increase in the fluorinated compound's thrombin binding potency (Sullivan R et al., 2006).

Anxiety and panic disorders can be treated with the triazolobenzodiazepine Alprazolam. Alprazolam and other benzodiazepines behave pharmacologically as positive allosteric modulators at the GABAA receptor, resulting in neuronal hyperpolarization and diminished neurotransmission (Baptista P et al., 2007). In people, a one mg oral portion of alprazolam not entirely settled to have an end T½ of 10 to 18 h and arrives at top plasma focuses (Tmax) in 0.7 to 1.8 h. CYP3A4 is primarily responsible for metabolizing alprazolam into -hydroxyalprazolam. Two DBZDs that are frequently found in crime labs are flualprazolam and flubromazolam, which are structurally related to alprazolam (Gregori A et al., 2007) (Tang YZ et al., 2007). On the benzene ring, both of these substances have a fluorine group, and on the benzodiazepine ring, flubromazolam has a bromine substitution for a chlorine group. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) reported an increase from 1811 to 4569 flualprazolam and 335 to 500 flubromazolam cases between 2019 and 2020. Alprazolam-D5 was utilized as an interior norm for alprazolam and α-hydroxyalprazolam (Patrick DM et al., 2004). The internal standard for flualprazolam, flubromazolam, -hydroxyflualprazolam, and -hydroxyflubromazolam was flualprazolam-D4. Mobile phase A consisted of water (LCMS grade) purchased from Fisher Chemical (Waltham, MA) and 0.1% acetic acid (100% LC-MS grade) purchased from Millipore Sigma (Darmstadt, Germany). Pure methanol (LC-MS grade) from Fisher Chemical (Waltham, MA) made up mobile phase B. Formic corrosive (LC-MS grade) and acetonitrile (LC-MS grade) were bought from Fisher Synthetic (Waltham, Mama). Praxair (Danbury, CT) provided the compressed 5.0 ultra-high purity (UHP) grade argon gas tank that was used for the collision gas. A nitrogen compressed gas tank from Praxair (Danbury, CT) served as the nitrogen gas tank for the evaporation step (Li WC 2014) (Heberer T 2002). The heating, drying, and nebulizing gases came from SouthTek through a nitrogen generator.

Phoenix WinNonlin software was used to estimate PK parameter values, and rectangular plots of parent compound and metabolite plasma concentration versus time were created. The plasma Cmax was found to be the highest concentration that was observed, and the Tmax was the time point that corresponded to it. Linear regression of the observed terminal natural log concentration versus time data yielded the terminal elimination rate constant (z) T12 of 0.693/z. Except for Tmax, which is presented as the median value, the pharmacokinetic data for each animal group for each compound are presented as the mean S.E.M. The linear trapezoidal rule was used to calculate the AUC0-, which is the total area under the plasma curve from zero to infinity. The terminal AUC was calculated by dividing the last measured concentration by z. VD/F is the ratio of the total dose in the body to the concentration in the blood when the drug is distributed evenly between the tissues and the blood after extravascular dosing (Banci L et al., 1999).


In comparison to alprazolam, we looked at the plasma PK of flubromazolam and flualprazolam. Flualprazolam and flubromazolam showed half-existences of 1.70 h and 1.42 h individually which were both more prominent than the 1.08 h T½ showed by alprazolam. Flubromazolam and flualprazolam also had plasma clearance and volume of distribution values that were at least twice as high as those of alprazolam. These results are consistent with a previous PK study that found that the pharmacophore core scaffold's addition or substitution of a fluorine group increased T12, clearance, and volume of distribution. Compared various matched molecular pair molecules using mesoscale discovery (MSD) PK data. Compounds that differ by a single molecular substitution are known as matched molecular pair molecules. In this specific review various replacements were endeavored including subbing various incandescent lamps, polar gatherings and other aliphatic gatherings for hydrogen. Notably, it was demonstrated that replacing hydrogen with fluorine increased T12, volume of distribution, and clearance, which is in line with our current findings and the additional fluorine group that flualprazolam and flubromazolam possess in comparison to alprazolam (Deblonde T et al., 2011).

For each compound, alpha-hydroxylases metabolites were identified and quantified in addition to the parent compounds.) Confirmed the presence of the alphahydroxylase metabolite in human case samples and found that the alpha-hydroxylated metabolite is present for flualprazolam in an in vitro model. In a similar vein found that both in vitro and forensic case samples contained the alpha-hydroxylase metabolite of flubromazolam. While the previously mentioned examinations were led in vitro or in human case tests, our outcomes in all actuality do affirm that these two metabolites are additionally framed in an in vivo rat model. Like the parent compounds, the metabolites showed a similar T½ pattern with an expansion in T½ coming about because of fluorination of the center construction. When compared to hydroxyflualprazolam, the substitution of a chlorine group for a bromine group resulted in a decrease in T12 just like with flubromazolam. However, the partitioning of the fluorinated compounds into the tissues is indicated by the nearly twofold increase in VD/F. Because of this, a given compound's increased exposure to tissues results in a longer T1 and, as a result, the potential for a longer duration of pharmacologic and toxicologic effects— which may partially explain why users have reported an increase in sedation and toxicity with DBZDs—as the VD/F increases.


The authors declare that there is no Competing interest




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