Thyrotoxicosis is the clinical syndrome of excessive circulating thyroid hormones, regardless of their source, whereas hyperthyroidism is characterized by increased thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion from the thyroid gland. Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism, followed by toxic nodular goitre. Thyroiditis, iodine and drug-induced thyroid dysfunction, and factitious ingestion of excessive thyroid hormones are additional significant causes of thyrotoxicosis. Graves' disease can be treated with ant thyroid medications, radioactive iodine therapy, or surgery. whereas, due to the high rate of thyrotoxicosis relapse following discontinuation, ant thyroid medications are typically not utilized for an extended period of time in toxic nodular goitre. In symptomatic thyrotoxicosis, blockers may be the only treatment required for thyrotoxicosis that is not caused by excessive thyroid hormone production and release. Thyroid storm and hyperthyroidism during pregnancy and after birth are unique conditions that require careful evaluation and treatment.
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