Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs) are pluripotent stem cells that can differentiate into all three germ layers of the embryo, giving rise to each of the somatic cell types in the body. Pluripotent stem cells have been widely used to study and understand the developmental processes that take place during gastrulation, a key stage in embryonic development. During gastrulation, the embryo transforms from a simple ball of cells into a complex structure with multiple cell layers and distinct regions. Stem cells have the potential to differentiate into several cell types and thus are of great importance in the fields of medicine, biology and tissue engineering. Pluripotent stem cells, in particular, are cells that can differentiate into any cell type, making them highly valuable and versatile. These cells are derived from embryos, and their ability to differentiate into any cell type makes them a highly popular tool to study early embryonic development. In this review, we will explore the uses of pluripotent stem cells as a new model for embryology gastrulation and how they can be used to recapitulate the complex cellular movements and molecular events that occur during this developmental stage.
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