Joboy-Okei EA, George IO*, Ugwu RO
Aim: To determine the prevalence of urinary abnormalities among children with SCA and compare them with those of children with haemoglobin AA (HbAA) genotype.
Study design: Prospective study
Place and duration of study: Data were obtained from children who attended the children outpatient clinic and haematology clinic between May 1st to August 31st 2017.
Methodology: Seventy children with SCA in steady state and 70 age and gender matched HbAA children were studied at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) using urine dipstick, microscopy, culture and sensitivity and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).
Results: The mean age of the children was 8.53 ± 4.85 years. Fifty-seven (81.4%) of the children with SCA had at least one urinary abnormality compared to only 15 (21.4%) of the controls. The prevalences of urinary abnormalities between subjects and controls were: proteinuria 21.4% versus 2.9% (p=0.0007), haematuria 5.8% versus 0.0% (p=0.0424). Children with SCA who had urinary abnormalities were seven times more likely to have decreased eGFR than those who did not have urinary abnormalities. (OR=7.54 ; 95%C.I. p=0.0476). However, no individual urinary abnormality significantly predicts abnormal renal function.
Conclusion: Children with sickle cell anaemia in steady state had a significantly higher prevalence of urinary abnormalities therefore routine urinalysis during follow up visits is advocated
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