Brain and other central nervous system tumours are the second most frequent kinds of cancer among children and adolescents in the United States, after only leukaemias in incidence. Brain cancer continues to be the primary cause of mortality in children despite major advancements in detection and treatment options. It is clear that there is a need to enhance these patients' survival rates and streamline the therapy approaches. Preclinical models are essential for that goal. Pediatric brain tumour research employs a variety of models, including genetically modified mouse models, patient-derived xenografts and cell lines, and more recent models that make use of cutting-edge technologies like genome editing and organoids. Researchers from the Children's Brain Tumor Network and others have conducted significant research that has discovered multiomic landscapes. Of diverse children's brain cancers. With the use of such integrated data, these revolutionary technologies have made a number of useful models possible. Modeling's flexibility was increased via genome engineering, including CRISPR/Cas9. Through the use of models created through genome engineering, specific genetic changes might be studied in pure isogenic settings, making it easier to analyse the functional mechanisms underlying those mutations in tumour biology. Organoids have been used to examine developmental elements of carcinogenesis, which are critical in some paediatric brain cancers, as well as interactions between tumours and their microenvironments.
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