Wide-ranging biomedical applications of nanomaterials include disease control, prevention, and treatment. The remarkable prevention of numerous infectious and non-infectious diseases of importance to humans and animals has been demonstrated using nanoparticle-based vaccinations. Due to their simplicity of administration and plasticity in physio-chemical properties, nano-vaccinations outnumber traditional vaccines. The improved antigen stability, minimal immunotoxicity, sustained release, increased immunogenicity, and the adaptability of nanoparticle physical properties can all be credited with the effectiveness of nano-based vaccinations. Based on these, the nano-based vaccines may be able to trigger immune responses at the cellular and humoral levels. With specifically designed nano-vaccines, immune pathways that are targeted and highly specific can be created, leading to strong and long-lasting immunity. This review provides information on employing nano-vaccinology to prevent both infectious and non-infectious disorders. The effective application of nano-vaccines from laboratory to clinical settings has also been identified as an area for future research.
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