Nanomaterials have wide-ranging biomedical applications in prevention, treatment and control of diseases. Nanoparticle based vaccines have proven prodigious prophylaxis of various infectious and non-infectious diseases of human and animal concern. Nano-vaccines outnumber the conventional vaccines by virtue of plasticity in physio-chemical properties and ease of administration. The efficacy of nano-based vaccines may be attributed to the improved antigen stability, minimum immuno-toxicity, sustained release, enhanced immunogenicity and the flexibility of physical features of nanoparticles. Based on these, the nano-based vaccines have potential to evoke both cellular and humoral immune responses. Targeted and highly specific immunological pathways required for solid and long lasting immunity may be achieved with specially engineered nano-vaccines. This review presents an insight into the prevention of infectious diseases and non-infectious diseases using nano-vaccinology.
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