Organelles like mitochondria can serve a variety of purposes. In addition to fulfilling the traditional function of providing the cell with energy, mitochondria actively control innate immune responses to sterile and viral stimuli. When produced or exposed in response to dysfunction or damage, mitochondrial components can be directly recognised by innate immune system receptors and cause an immunological response (Edem et al., 2012). Additionally, even though their mitochondrial regulation may not be necessary for their start, many innate immune responses nonetheless depend on or require mitochondria for specific steps of their signalling cascades. The precise immune response is modulated, and the direction and nature of an innate immune cell's response to stimuli are shaped by mitochondrial metabolites and the metabolic state of its mitochondria. Together, these mechanisms cause mitochondria to regulate innate immune responses in a complex and targeted manner (Idowu et al., 2016).
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