Environmental heavy metal pollution and its toxicological ef | 94150
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Journal of Research in Environmental Science and Toxicology

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Environmental heavy metal pollution and its toxicological effects on people Toxicology and Arsenic Exposure from a Historical Perspective


Emmanuel Sinagra*

Humans frequently come into contact with the natural environmental pollutant metalloid arsenic through food, water, air, and soil. In addition to its long history as a murderous substance, arsenic has been utilised as a pesticide, a chemotherapeutic, and a component of consumer goods over the past century. High amounts of naturally occurring arsenic in drinking water are a toxicological issue in several parts of the world. Due to its ability to combine with other elements to form alloys and establish covalent connections with hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and other elements, arsenic exists in a variety of structural shapes and oxidation states. Inorganic and organic forms of arsenic that are trivalent or pentavalent in nature are relevant to the environment. Arsenic's (+3 oxidation state) role in the catalysis of arsenic metabolism Methyltransferase is an enzyme that sequentially reduces molecules from pentavalency to trivalency and then oxidatively methylates them to return to pentavalency. In general, pentavalent arsenic is less toxicologically powerful than trivalent arsenic. Acute consequences of arsenic might be as severe as death or gastrointestinal upset. Chronic arsenic exposure may have an impact on multiple main organ systems depending on the dose. The main cancers caused by swallowed arsenic are those of the skin, bladder, and lungs. Arsenic's mode of action for its illness endpoints is actively being researched. The interaction of trivalent arsenicals with sulphur in proteins and arsenic's capacity to cause oxidative stress are two important areas. Understanding of the toxicity of arsenic will continue to increase thanks to technological developments and the recent creation of animal models for arsenic carcinogenicity (Kawasaki M et al ., 2013).

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