Utilizing populace genomics and phenotypic measures, reproduced the domestication history of the blue cheddar form Penicillium roqueforti. We demonstrated that this fungus was domesticated on two separate occasions. The population utilized in Roquefort was derived from a previous domestication event that was associated with weak bottlenecks. It possessed characteristics that were advantageous for the production of cheese prior to industrialization, such as slower growth in cheese and increased spore production on bread, which is the conventional method of multiplication. The other cheese population was selected from a single clonal lineage more recently, was associated with all blue cheeses worldwide, with the exception of Roquefort, and exhibited characteristics more appropriate for industrial cheese production (high lipolytic activity, efficient cheese cavity colonization ability, and salt tolerance). Recent positive selection and alleged horizontal gene transfers were spotted in genomic areas. This study sheds light on the processes of rapid adaptation and raises concerns regarding the preservation of genetic resources.
Share this article