The indiscriminate use of pesticides and botanicals to preserve legumes is a common practice. Phaseolus vulgaris is a legume commonly preserved to protect against pest attacks and insect infestations. This study evaluates the biochemical effect of Phaseolus vulgaris preserved with natural and synthetic pesticides in albino rats. Thirty six (36) male albino rats weighing between 150-200 g were randomly assigned into six (6) groups A, B, C, D, E and F with 6 rats each. Phaseolus vulgaris was preserved separately in five air tight containers, each having 1000 g of beans and preserved with wood ash, pepper, dichlorvos, aluminium phoshide and last beans without preservatives. The preserved beans were milled into powder and used as a dietary supplement for the experimental animals. All the animals were fed feely with animal feed and water. Group A was fed animal feed and Group B was fed Phaseolus vulgaris without preservatives. While Groups C, D, E, and F were fed with Phaseolus vulgaris preserved with wood, pepper, dichlorvos, and aluminium phosphide respectively for a period of 60 days. The rats were euthanized and blood samples were collected after the termination of the study. The rats in group D showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in liver enzyme activity. A significant (P<0.05) decrease was observed in most of the kidney parameters in the groups except for the rats fed beans preserved with dichlorvos in sodium ion. A significant (P<0.05) increase in antioxidants (CAT, SOD, and GPx) was observed in the rats fed beans preserved with pepper while the rats fed beans preserved with dichlorvos showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in malondialdehyde which shows the oxidative effect of the residual components of the preservatives. There was a significant (P<0.05) increase in CRP in the rats exposed to beans preserved with dichlorvos and aluminum phosphide. Also, there was a significant (P<0.05) decrease in CRP in the rats fed beans preserved with ash and rats fed beans preserved with pepper. This indicates that the use of these pesticides has biochemical effects that could be toxic. The result also suggests that pepper and ash which are considered a safer alternative for preservation may be harmful over a prolonged period of time despite their antioxidant effects.
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