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Case Study - Journal of Research in Environmental Science and Toxicology ( 2023) Volume 12, Issue 2

Neon Radisson*
 
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Iowa Flood Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52245, USA
 
*Corresponding Author:
Neon Radisson, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Iowa Flood Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52245, USA, Email: NRad_isson@edu.in

Received: 03-Mar-2023 Editor assigned: 06-Mar-2023 Reviewed: 20-Mar-2023 Revised: 27-Mar-2023 Published: 31-Mar-2023, DOI: 10.14303/2315-5698.2023.24

Abstract

Biomagnification is a process that occurs in ecosystems when certain chemicals or substances become concentrated as they move up the food chain. This phenomenon occurs because the organisms at the top of the food chain eat many smaller organisms, each of which has accumulated some amount of the substance. Over time, this results in a build-up of the substance in the tissues of organisms higher up in the food chain. Biomagnification can have a number of negative impacts on ecosystems and human health. For example, high levels of mercury in fish can cause neurological damage in humans who consume them. Similarly, exposure to pesticides like DDT has been linked to a range of health problems, including cancer, reproductive issues, and developmental disorders.

INTRODUCTION

Bio-magnification is a phenomenon that occurs when toxins and pollutants become increasingly concentrated as they move up the food chain. It is a serious environmental issue that has the potential to affect entire ecosystems and even human health. In this article, we will explore the effects of bio-magnification on the environment (Bornmann L et al., 2008). To understand bio-magnification, it is essential to understand the food chain. In a food chain, there are producers (plants), consumers (animals that eat plants), and top predators (animals that eat other animals). Toxins and pollutants can enter the food chain at any level, but they tend to accumulate in the bodies of top predators because they consume larger quantities of food and accumulate more toxins over time (Daipha P et al., 2001) (Da Silva FC et al., 2011).

The effects of bio-magnification on the environment are significant. For example, pesticides, such as DDT, have been linked to the decline of bird populations. When DDT was widely used in the 1950s and 1960s, it would enter the food chain through insects that had been exposed to it. The birds would eat the insects and then accumulate the DDT in their bodies. As a result, the DDT concentration in the birds' bodies would increase over time. This caused the birds to lay eggs with thin shells that would break before they could hatch, resulting in a decline in bird populations (Diamond L et al., 2006).

DISCUSSION

To prevent bio-magnification, it is essential to reduce the use of toxins and pollutants that enter the environment (Gill TM et al., 2013) (Glock CY et al., 1958). This can be done through regulations that limit the use of pesticides and industrial pollutants. It is also important to educate the public on the dangers of bio-magnification and how to reduce exposure to toxins and pollutants. This can include eating lower on the food chain, choosing organic foods, and avoiding fish with high levels of mercury. At its most basic level, biomagnification occurs because many pollutants and toxins are fat-soluble. This means that they dissolve in fats and oils rather than in water. When these pollutants are introduced into an aquatic environment, they may become trapped in the fatty tissues of plankton, small fish, and other small organisms. As these small organisms are eaten by larger predators, the pollutants become more concentrated in the predator's body. This process continues as the larger predators are eaten by even larger predators, and so on, until the pollutant levels are magnified to dangerous levels (Grimmer J et al., 2013).

Effects of biomagnification

Examples of substances that can undergo biomagnification include heavy metals like mercury and lead, as well as certain pesticides, herbicides, and other chemicals. These substances are often introduced into ecosystems through human activities like agriculture, mining, and industrial processes.

One of the most well-known examples of biomagnification involves the pesticide DDT, which was widely used in the mid-20th century to control insects in agriculture and other settings. DDT is highly toxic to many species of insects, but it also has a tendency to persist in the environment for long periods of time. As a result, it can accumulate in the tissues of organisms that consume it, leading to concentrations that are thousands of times higher than in the surrounding environment (Horowitz IL et a., 2003).

One of the most famous examples of DDT biomagnification occurred in the United States in the 1950s and 1960s, when populations of bald eagles began to decline rapidly. Researchers eventually discovered that the birds were being poisoned by DDT, which had accumulated in the tissues of the fish they were eating. As a result of this discovery, DDT was banned in the United States in 1972, and the bald eagle population has since rebounded (Lakin JM et al., 2011).

To address the issue of biomagnification, many governments have implemented regulations to limit the use of certain chemicals and substances. In addition, there is on-going research into ways to prevent or mitigate the effects of biomagnification, such as using natural predators to control pest populations instead of pesticides.

Another example of bio-magnification is mercury. Mercury is a toxic metal that can cause serious health problems in humans and animals. It is released into the environment through industrial activities and ends up in the water. Fish at the bottom of the food chain absorb small amounts of mercury, but as they are eaten by larger fish, the concentration of mercury increases. The top predators, such as sharks and tuna, have the highest concentration of mercury in their bodies, which can lead to serious health problems if consumed by humans (Lamont M et al., 1987).

The effects of bio-magnification on human health are also significant. For example, the pesticide DDT has been linked to cancer, reproductive problems, and developmental disorders. Mercury can cause neurological problems, such as tremors and memory loss, and can be especially harmful to pregnant women and children.

One of the most well-known examples of biomagnification is the case of the pesticide DDT. DDT was widely used in the mid-twentieth century to control insect populations. However, it was later discovered that DDT was highly toxic to many animals, including birds of prey. When DDT was introduced into the environment, it became concentrated in the fatty tissues of small organisms like plankton and small fish. As larger predators like birds of prey consumed these smaller organisms, the DDT levels became magnified to the point where it caused severe damage to the birds' reproductive systems. This led to a decline in the populations of many bird species, including the bald eagle.

Another example of biomagnification is the case of mercury in fish. Mercury is a naturally occurring element that is released into the environment through various human activities, including coal burning and mining. When mercury is introduced into an aquatic environment, it can become trapped in the fatty tissues of fish. As larger fish consume smaller fish, the mercury levels become magnified to the point where it can be harmful to humans who consume the fish.

Biomagnification can have a number of negative effects on the environment and the organisms that live within it. For example, it can lead to declines in populations of certain species, as was the case with the bald eagle. It can also lead to health problems in animals and humans that consume contaminated organisms. Additionally, biomagnification can have economic effects, as it can lead to declines in the fish populations that many people rely on for food and income.

CONCLUSION

Bio magnification is an important ecological phenomenon that can have far-reaching impacts on both ecosystems and human health. By understanding how substances like heavy metals and pesticides accumulate in food chains, we can work to reduce their use and limit their impact on the environment; bio-magnification is a serious environmental issue that can have significant effects on ecosystems and human health. It is important to take action to reduce the use of toxins and pollutants that enter the environment and to educate the public on the dangers of bio-magnification. By doing so, we can work towards a healthier and more sustainable future for ourselves and the planet. Overall, biomagnification is a serious problem that requires attention and action. Efforts to reduce the release of pollutants and toxins into the environment can help to reduce the impact of biomagnification. Additionally, monitoring the levels of pollutants in different organisms can help to identify potential problems and take action before they become too severe. By working together to address the problem of biomagnification, we can help to protect the environment and the organisms that depend on it.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

None

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

None

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