The combination of mass spectrometry, chemometrics, genetically engineered mice, and improved ultraperformance liquid chromatography offers an alluring array of instruments with which to study the metabolism of xenobiotics. Here, the metabolism of the suspected carcinogen areca alkaloids (arecoline, arecaidine, and arecoline 1-oxide), the hormone supplement melatonin, the food mutagen PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5- b]pyridine), and the experimental cancer treatment aminoflavone are reexamined. The xenobiotics' metabolic maps in every instance were greatly expanded, offering fresh perspectives on their toxicity. The use of transgenic mice allowed for the clear attribution of particular metabolic pathways, frequently unique, to specific enzymes. Finally, a potential direction for xenobiotic metabolomics is presented, along with its effects on the metabolome.
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