Sialic acids are essential molecules with a wide range of structural variations. They have been found in higher creatures like Echinoderms, Hemichordata, Cephalochorda, and Vertebrata, as well as lower species like Platyhelminthes, Cephalopoda, and Crustaceae. Plants are known to be deficient in sialic acid. However, they have been observed in viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and fungus. Although deaminated neuraminic acid exists in both vertebrates and microorganisms, it is known to be abundant in lower vertebrates (Proudfoot 2009). Sialic acids are usually found at the terminals of glycoproteins and glycolipids, in capsular and tissue polysialic acids, in bacterial lipooligosaccharides/polysaccharides, and in other forms that determine their significance in biology (Olusegun et al., 2019).
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