H.A. Nggada, B.M. Gali, A.A. Bakari, E.H. Yawe-Terna, M.B.Tahir, E. Apari, A.B. Dahiru, K-D.T. Yawe
Diseases of the female breast are very common in clinical practice and therefore patient’s presents with symptoms and signs which include pains, palpable mass and nipple discharge. This study aimed at examining the spectrum of breast diseases among a Nigerian population in the Sahel climatic zone. Determine the prevalence and classifying the various types of female breast diseases in our environment. This is a retrospective study of 467 cases of breast disease diagnosed at the UMTH between January 2007 to December 2009 was carried out. All breast diseases cases were retrieved from the database of the Histopathology departments along with the patients request forms. The demographic information was extracted from the request form and this includes: Age, Sex, nature of specimens, Hospital number and Histopathological diagnosis. A total of 479 histologically diagnosed breast lesions accounted for 17.1 % of all tissue specimens diagnosed within the study period. Out of which 467 cases are females while 12 cases are males. The breast lesions are seen from the 2nd decade of life. The inflammatory, benign and cancers diseases of breast accounted for 3.9%, 57% and 39.1% of all breast lesions respectively. The commonest histological type of breast cancer is invasive ductal carcinoma which accounted for 74.9%; Invasive lobular carcinoma (15.8%); Medullary carcinoma (4.9%); Mucinous carcinoma (3.8%) and malignant phylloides tumour (0.5%). 15 of the cancers patients had immunohistochemistry analysis, 2 of the patients are progesterone positive and 7 Herceptine receptor positive. Breast disease especially cancer is very common in our area of practice and most of our patients were young and premenopausal women presenting with benign and advanced stages of cancer. However, public health awareness must be intensifying by individuals, groups and the government in educating the women about breast diseases so as to encourage early presentation by reducing the morbidity and mortality. However, this study may stimulate further studies using immunohistochemistry analysis and outcome of patients.
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