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Spectroscopy Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Cardiovascular | 93108
International Research Journals

Spectroscopy Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Cardiovascular Disease Detection And Characterization Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Abstract

Shreya David*

A spectroscopic method for observing the local magnetic fields around atomic nuclei is nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, sometimes referred to as magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) or NMR spectroscopy. The primary subject of this paper is cardiovascular disease, which has atherosclerosis as its underlying cause (Alic AS et al., 2016). It also discusses how nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, an analytical method, is being used to better comprehend this subject. The sample is put in a magnetic field, and the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal is generated by radio waves excitation of the sample's nuclei, which is detected by sensitive radio receivers. A molecule's atom's intra-molecular magnetic field can alter the resonance frequency, providing information about a molecule's electronic structure and its many functional groups. In contemporary organic chemistry, NMR spectroscopy is the only reliable way to identify monomolecular organic molecules since the fields are distinctive or highly specific to particular compounds. The most potent analytical method accessible to biology is nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. This review is intended for readers who have little to no experience collecting or analysing NMR spectra and serves as an introduction to the possibilities of this approach (Kelley DR et al., 2010). Instead of imaging applications, we concentrate on spectroscopic ones of the magnetic resonance effect and show how many facets of the NMR phenomenon make it a flexible instrument with which to tackle a variety of biological issues. We go over how 1H NMR spectroscopy is used in mixture analysis and metabolomics, how 13C NMR spectroscopy is used to track isotopomers and calculate the flux through metabolic pathways (referred to as "fluxomics"), and how 31P NMR spectroscopy is used to monitor ATP synthesis and intracellular pH homeostasis in vivo. Additional examples show how NMR spectroscopy can be used to determine macromolecular structures by measuring the bonds and distances that separate individual atoms as well as how it can be used to measure the diffusion and tumbling rates of individual metabolites in order to probe the physical environment of a cell. We conclude by highlighting some of the major obstacles still facing NMR spectroscopy while also pointing out how recent developments, such as stronger magnet fields, cryogenic cooling, microprobes, and hyperpolarization, are providing new opportunities for the field's biological NMR spectroscopists of today (Salmela L et al., 2011).

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