Soil is a porous matrix containing organic matter, minerals, and organisms that change physically, geographically, and over time. Plants select specific microbiomes from a pool of soil microbes to help them grow and stay healthy. Many ecosystem functions in agricultural systems are provided by soil microbes, similar to soil ecosystems, and the completion of cycling activities of key nutrients such as C, N, S, and P is performed by soil microbes. Soil microbes affect carbon nanotubes (CNTs), nanoparticles (NPs), and nanopesticides. These are called man-made nano-objects (MNOs) and are intentionally added to the environment or introduced into the soil in the form of nanomaterial contaminants. It is of great importance to assess the impact of MNOs on key plant-microbial symbioses, including mycorrhizae, which are important for the health, function and sustainability of both natural and agroecosystems. Toxic compounds are released into rural and urban ecosystems as a result of anthropogenic pollution from industrial processes, agricultural practices, and consumer products. When released, these pollutants can pass through air and water and lodge in matrices such as sediments and groundwater, rendering large areas uninhabitable. With the rapid growth of nanotechnology, the applications of nanoobjects manufactured in the form of nanopesticides are expanding as they can raise concerns about potential ecotoxicity and presence in consumer products. MNOs are added throughout the life cycle and accumulate in soil and other components of the environment. Most commonly, it adversely affects soil biota and processes. MNO influences not only the microbial metabolic activity of the rhizosphere soil, but also the physicochemical properties of the soil. In this review, we examine the adverse effects of MNOs on soil, the pathways used by microbes to deal with MNOs, and the fate and behavior of NPs in soil.
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