Studies of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) aimed to determine the etiology and microbiology of predominant pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility. The evaluation of the percentage of infections in different medical areas and the severity of infection is determined. Based on medical and biological criteria of hospitals involvement of different microorganisms in catheters, bloodstream, prosthetic devices, and in medical interventions lead to the generation of diseases. Ventilator- associated pneumonia (VAP), urinary tract infections (UTI), respiratory tract infections (RTI), and surgical site infections (SSI) are common.
It provides an appropriate discussion on the importance of nosocomial infections and their antibiotic resistance. The adverse effects on patient safety and emergence of complications by multidrug-resistant microorganisms are evaluated and the Limits of antimicrobial therapies by the increasing rates of detection of microorganisms.
It highlights the importance of biofilm formation, enzymatic modifications in microorganisms, production of multidrug-resistant microorganisms from it, and the effect of antibiotics on them. The Biofilm formation in catheters of intensive care units (ICU) leads to a high mortality rate and prevalence’s by the contribution of Methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Acinetobacter baumannii, and Clostridium difficile.
The information of emergence of antibiotic resistance from antibiotics like cephalosporins, vancomycin, carbapenems, etc. The process of identification and culture of microorganism and their lab diagnosis is done in different ways. Treatment options by antibiofilm coating particles that are newly present for intracellular targeting and, antimicrobial therapy of different infections by the use of newly emerging antibiotics and drugs.
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