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International Research Journal of Microbiology

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Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of the aqueous extracts and fractions of ethanolic extracts of Lawsonia inermis leaf

Abstract

A.H. Kawo*and A.M. Kwa

The Lawsonia inermis leaves were extracted using water and ethanol. The ethanol extract was fractionated using petroleum-ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. The aqueous extract, the fractions and the fractionation residue were subjected into phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity tests using standard methods. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, resins, saponins, sterols and tannins in different composition in the aqueous extract, fractions of ethanol extract and fractionation residue of the leaves. In-vitro antibacterial activities of the aqueous extract, fractions of ethanol extract and fractionation residue of the leaves were investigated against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Salmonella typhi and Shigella dysenteriae using agar-disc diffusion method. The aqueous extract, the fractions and the fractionation residues all showed antibacterial activities against the test isolates. The methanol, ethyl acetate, petroleum-ether fractions and the fractionation residues leaf exhibited MIC and MBC against majority of the test bacterial isolates within the range of 5mg/ml to 40mg/ml. The overall results of the study suggested that the Lawsonia inermis leaf could be a good source of antibacterial compounds.

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