Goodarz Hajizadeh, Mohammad Reza Kavosi and Elyas Moshashaei
The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae), is a forest pest native to Europe and parts of Asia. It was accidentally introduced from Europe into Massachusetts in 1869. The gypsy moth is a highly polyphagous folivore species that feeds on over 300 species of woody plants. Among its most preferred hosts are oaks and aspens. The research has conducted with the purpose of gathering natural enemies and pathogenic agents of gypsy moth. Natural enemies refer to the predators, parasitoids and pathogens that affect pest insects such as the gypsy moth. These natural enemies are important in helping to control gypsy moth outbreaks and in keeping populations low in the years between outbreaks. A diverse group of birds, mammals, amphibians, and insect predators feed on gypsy moth eggs, caterpillars and pupae. Mice are important predators of gypsy moth caterpillars and pupae.
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