Due to their heightened risk behaviour, such as delinquency and substance use, adolescents have long been stigmatised as the stereotypical risk-takers. So, increasing the minimum age for substance use is a typical legal move that assumes that restricting the exposure to substances, or "risk exposure," may lessen such increased adolescent
risk behaviour. Towards some level, criminological models recognise this ecological concept of risk exposure access to risk-friendly settings. Modern psychological theories, however, which emphasise neuropsychological development, particularly socio-affective and cognitive control development, essentially ignore risk exposure. Moreover, age-dependent development, which is a common feature of this idea, is ignored when theories in these areas do take risk exposure into account.
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