Although the effect of gram positive bacilli on the health of the female reproductive tract is still disputed, they have been widely used to treat intestinal diseases. Lactobacillus is the most bountiful and dominated gram positive bacteria in the vagina, which is connected with the vaginal mucosal hindrance. Lactobacillus can compete with pathogens to prevent their colonization by adhering to the vaginal epithelium. Bacteriocin and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2), two Lactobacillus-produced factors, can keep the vagina's low pH level and prevent the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. Probiotic supplementation is the essential source of huge range of gram positive bacteria specially lactobacillus for preventing cervical cancer from spreading, strengthening the immune system, and preserving the stability of the vaginal microenvironment. In order to provide a basis for further exerting the role of Different Lactobacillus species in women's health, we review the research progress of probiotics represented by Lactobacillus in gynecological diseases like Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection, Bacterial Vaginosis (BV), and Genitourinary Syndrome of Menopause (GSM).
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